The upcoming 2020 is a leap year. Where does the extra day on the calendar come from, how did February fall prey to the rivalry between Octavian Augustus and Julius Caesar, and should you be afraid of a leap year?
Why was February initially short?
From January 1, 45 BC. Roman dictator Guy Julius Caesar introduced a calendar developed by the Alexandrian astronomers led by Sozigen. Prior to this, the Roman calendar was lunisolar, that is, calculations in it were made not only on the basis of the movement of the sun, but also of the moon. The old Roman calendar consisted of 355 days with an additional 22-day month every two years. The new calendar was named after Caesar - Julian.
It was in the Julian calendar that the usual 365 days and leap years appeared.
Leap year - every fourth year in which February is one day longer than usual. This extra day was introduced in order to compensate for the discrepancy between the movement of the Sun and the calendar. The fact is that the Earth makes a complete revolution around the Sun not in 365 days, but in 365 days, 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds. These leap seconds, minutes and hours add up to one "extra" day for every four revolutions of the Earth around the Sun.
Why did they start adding an extra day to February? In the days of Caesar, the calendar year began in March, while the even months contained 30 days, and the odd ones - 31. Under Caesar, February was the last - even - month, and he simply did not get one day until 30. It was quite logical to add an extra day to precisely him.
How AUGUST “robbed” FEBRUARY
The Romans inserted an additional day of every fourth year not at the end of February, as is customary now, but immediately after the 24th. Hence the name "leap". The fact is that in the Roman calendar, days were counted in relation to subsequent calendars - to the first day of the next month. The extra day was called bis sextus ante calendas martii - twice the sixth number before the March calendars. Soon this long naming was shortened to two words, and the year when such a number appeared was called bisexual ... This name has survived even after the replacement of "twice the sixth" day on the 29th of February. In Russian it is transformed into a "leap year" .
Why are there 28 days in February?
According to legend, February fell victim to the vanity of Caesar's adopted son, the Roman emperor Octavian Augustus, after whom the last summer month was named.
Initially, August was called "sextile", that is, the sixth, and contained 30 days. Octavian Augustus increased it to 31 days so that it would not be shorter than July, named after Julius Caesar. He took away the missing day from February, which is why he has only 28 days in ordinary years.
Why is the Gregorian calendar needed?
The calendar by which we now live is called Gregorian ... He received it in honor of Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced this calendar in 1582. Before this reform, Europe lived for more than sixteen centuries using the Julian calendar.
Why was it necessary to develop a new calendar? The fact is that in the Julian calendar, the estimated length of the year was taken as 365 days and 6 hours. This is 11 minutes and 14 seconds longer than the true time of the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The discrepancy led to the fact that the date of the vernal equinox was gradually shifted to earlier days of the calendar. By the end of the 16th century, the vernal equinox came about ten days earlier than March 21 - the date of the vernal equinox, established in 325 by the Council of Nicaea to determine the day of Easter.
To better match the average calendar year with the solar year, it was decided to change the leap year rule. In the Gregorian calendar, the leap year is still a multiple of four.
However, the number of leap years has decreased by three over the course of four centuries.
For this, the last years of any century (1600th, 1700th, and so on) are considered leap years only if they are divisible by 400.
In other words, the last years of centuries ending in two zeros are not leap years in three cases out of four. It is easy to count that the 1700th, 1800th and 1900th were thus "simple" years. But 1600 and 2000 are leap in both calendars. Our century will also end with a simple year - 2100, like the XXII and XXIII centuries. And only the 2400th year will again consist of 366 days.
Leap year is not terrible!
Leap years seem to people to be something strange and unusual, therefore many traditions and superstitions are associated with them.
The leap year problem is not limited to the Julian and Gregorian calendars. For example, in the Hebrew calendar, which is based on the lunar month, a leap year is a year to which a month is added, not a day. The modern Iranian calendar has eight leap days, which are added every 33 years.
Today there are about 4 million people in the world, whose date of birth is officially registered on February 29th. The probability of being born on this day is quite small: it is equal to 1: 1461 (0.068%). It turns out that the occasion for celebrating a birthday falls for such people four times less often, and yet they are more lucky than losers. Firstly, such people can choose the date of the celebration between February 28 and March 1 - as it is more convenient for them. Secondly, they can give their age, dividing it by four, and not lie.
Now the Internet and print media are full of various signs and instructions, which cannot be done in a leap year. Many people consider leap years unhappy, for example, they are afraid to celebrate weddings, housewarming, buy apartments, build houses ...
Leap years are usually not popular among the people. For a long time, troubles and troubles have been expected from them. 2012, in which Mayan fans expected the apocalypse, was also a leap year. But, nevertheless, everything turned out well. If you look at the history of our country in the 20th century, it is difficult to even remember what a great shock occurred in a leap year. The First World War, the Revolution, the Great Patriotic War, the collapse of the USSR - all by. The proposed scheme of inevitable disasters fits only the earthquake in Armenia in 1988, but that's all. Therefore, we can confidently conclude that the popular beliefs associated with a leap year have no basis whatsoever. It has long been proven that leap years do not differ from ordinary ones in terms of the number of cataclysms or troubles.
It is possible that these superstitions date back to Ancient Rome, where the feast of remembrance of the dead - Parentalia - fell on February.
In fact, leap years are just an amendment that has to be made to the work of an imperfect instrument, the Gregorian calendar. And yet, even with this correction, the length of the year in the Gregorian calendar is 26 seconds longer than the tropical year and accumulates an error of 0.0003 days per year, which is three days in 10 thousand years. The Gregorian calendar also does not account for the slowing of the Earth's rotation, which lengthens the day by 0.6 seconds over 100 years.
Where did the leap year come from and should you be afraid of it?
Obeying the usual habit of believing in omens, we are afraid of many things. The ubiquitous black cat, sprinkled with salt, come back if something is forgotten at home, even women with an empty bucket. They expect troubles from every fourth year, without even thinking why a leap year is considered bad ... But is everything so gloomy in our world, the best under the sun?
By the way, we remembered about a star called the Sun ... It is the relationship with it that we owe the appearance of leap misfortune. Or rather, mutual rotation. Everyone knows that the earth revolves around the sun in 365 days. Of course, except for those advanced earthlings who know that this is a very approximate number. In fact, the rotation period is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds, or 395.2422 days.
And this is logical. It would be strange if astronomical time was adjusted to our human needs. After all, it appeared when humanity was still in the project, or rather, it was not yet there. When people finally thought about this fact, they decided that the discrepancy should be somehow compensated.
How did a leap year come about and why is it considered a bad year?
I came, I saw, I conquered
We owe the appearance of a leap year to Guy Julius Caesar. When he became emperor, he instructed the astronomer Sozigen to develop a new calendar, later called Julian. Before him, the problem was solved somewhat inconveniently. The Roman calendar consisted of 355 days, and every two years a 22-day month was added to it. Sozigen came up with a more perfect conversion system that still exists today. He made 365 days in a year, with the addition of one day every fourth year.
Julius Caesar decided to insert this extra day in the place where there used to be an extra month of Mercedonia - between February 23rd and 24th. Thus, every fourth year, February contained two 24 numbers. The poetic Romans called this day - "the sixth day before the March calendars." In Latin - six sounds like "sextus", respectively, two sixes - "bisextus". And such an additional year is "bisexilis".
What is good for a Roman is death for a Russian
Our overseas word has been transformed into "leap". But the reforms did not end there. It turns out that during the reign of Caesar, February consisted of 30 days, and July, named after him, of 31. The least fortunate August, which had 29 days. Octavian Augustus, who replaced Julius at the imperial office, could not endure such injustice. He ordered to urgently add two days to August so that it equals July. And the unhappy February, respectively, decreased to 28 days. Since no royal personages with such a name have appeared until now, he still remains in this status. One consolation - every four years, an additional famous 29th.
The following changes in chronology took place under Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. Astronomers recalled that 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds multiplied by four is a little short of a full day. It was decided to compensate the resulting difference again and reduce it by 3 days every 400 years. You can check the year for leap years using this rule. A leap year is one whose numerical value can be divided by four. The exception is years, divisible by one hundred, but not divisible by four hundred.
But "the Soviets have their own pride"!
The Gregorian chronology was introduced in Russia only since 1918. And before that, the Julian calendar operated in it, and 1700, 1800 and 1900 were leap years only for Russians. It is a pity that the misfortunes for our homeland did not end there, but only began. Perhaps it was necessary to leave everything as before?
But time flies forward, and there is no limit to perfection. The twenty-first century brought us even closer to the sundial. Since 2012, another compensatory unit has appeared - the leap second.
What is a leap second
Modern astronomers have found that the Earth is gradually slowing down its rotation. This value is small - in a day it loses only two thousandths of a second. Well, it was decided to correct this small discrepancy with the constant atomic time of the clock. And at the end of June 2012, a leap second was added. This procedure has not been without problems for computer systems. Mozilla, Reddit, Forks Square, Yelp, and other networks reported problems. I wonder how they would react to Caesar's experiments?
Why is a leap year considered unlucky? This belief was born thanks to St. John Cassian. His name day is celebrated on February 29. And the glory of this saint is not very good. Dahl's dictionary calls it differently - Kasyan the Envious, Vindictive, Heavy, Self-serving.
There is such a parable among the people. Once, in a damp autumn weather, a man asked Kasyan and Nikola for help to pull out a cart that was stuck in the mud. Nicholas the pleaser helped, but the proud Kasyan refused. Before God, he tried to justify himself by the fact that he was afraid to stain the snow-white paradise clothes. But the just Lord did not heed the excuses and punished Kasyan, ordering him to serve a prayer service only once every four years.
Despite the status of a saint, the people treated Kasyan sharply negatively. In East Slavic legends, clearly demonic features were attributed to him, reflected in both appearance and character. In Ukrainian beliefs, his image echoes the notorious Viy. In one of the Poltava legends, St. Kasian looks up only on February 29 - and everything he looks at dies.
In Russia, they also believed in this and said so - "Kasyan looks at anything, everything fades." Kasyan's malice spread for a whole year - "Hood offspring for Kasyanov year." Among the ancient Russians, a leap year was considered dangerous and promising disaster, hunger, disease and other misfortunes. This year, do not expect a good harvest, happiness and offspring, so you cannot get married in a leap year. Some historians believe that such a fate befell St. Kasyan because of the pagan concepts of good (permanent) and bad (variable) time.
The moment of abrupt change of one order to another - from winter to spring, from old year to new, enjoyed a bad reputation. Such a period was considered a time of destruction and chaos and did not promise anything positive. Kasyan's day fell on the most unfavorable boundary - the final day of winter and the whole year - in ancient times, the beginning of the year and spring coincided and fell on March 1. Now you know why a leap year is considered bad, and it is up to you to believe in these legends or not.
Where did the leap year come from, is it dangerous and how to survive it without loss
The arrival of a leap year causes serious concern for many, because many different superstitions are associated with it. Despite the fact that it is the 21st century, the belief in the negative effect of a leap year on a person's life is very strong. Many expect dastardly blows, disappointments and losses from fate, setting themselves up for bad things in advance and completely unreasonably. Where did the belief in the "terrible" year come from and what do astrologers say about this?
Belief in an unlucky leap year lives on for centuries. Once every four years, everyone froze in anticipation of hunger, epidemics, cattle pestilence, crop failure or war. Children born in leap years were considered unhappy, and especially a hopeless life was predicted for those who were born on February 29.
An old English proverb says: "In a leap year, and a horse bean grows in the wrong direction," and belief in this, to varying degrees, was present among all peoples living on the calendar with an "extra day" every four years. This superstition was present among the Celts, Slavs, Scandinavians and even the ancient Romans.
In Russia, with the advent of Christianity, a leap year was expected as an inevitable disaster, relying only on the mercy of God. An important role in the formation of beliefs about the "bad year" was played by the story of Saint Kasyan, who betrayed the Lord and went over to the side of Satan. For his apostasy, he was punished by being beaten on the forehead with a hammer for three years and given a break for the fourth. This year Kasyan descended to Earth and took out his anger in people.
According to another version, Kasyan was placed as a guard at the gates of Hell. Once every 4 years, on February 29, the traitor was given a day off and allowed to walk among the people. The belief in this legend, which had obvious pagan roots, was so strong among the people that many preferred to simply not leave the house that day, so as not to run into the hellish gatekeeper and his wiles.
“Kasyan will look at the cattle - the cattle is falling; on a tree - the tree dries, ”- so they said about the mythical enemy of mankind, wielding a leap year. So where did these weird, irrational fears come from every four years? It is possible that, having begun astronomical observations and noticing that every four years, one day is taken from nowhere, people associated this phenomenon with the machinations of evil forces.
And what does the impartial statistics say? You and I are people of the 21st century, and we must first of all believe the facts. And the facts show that almost all the most terrible events and cataclysms happened in ordinary, not leap years. The First and Second World War, the sinking of the Titanic, the most severe floods, earthquakes and epidemics began in ordinary years.
Leap, on the contrary, gave a lot of good to humanity. If we talk about the great and simply famous people who appeared in such years, then the list will be very impressive. Lev Tolstoy, Mikhail Glinka, Johann Strauss, Konstantin Khabensky and Audrey Tatu were born precisely in the "unhappy" period.
Meticulous researchers even checked the statistics of the Moscow registry offices, quite unexpectedly learning that the year does not affect either the number of divorces, or the mortality and birth rate among residents of the capital. Moreover, in some districts of the city there is a slight increase in those wishing to sign in a leap year. This suggests that superstitions are gradually leaving us, giving way to common sense.
Where does the leap year come from?
The appearance in the calendar of a leap year is associated with the need to synchronize it with astrological cycles. Even ancient scientists noticed that our planet spends not 365 days, but a little more for a complete revolution around the Sun. To be absolutely precise, the full turnover takes 365.2422 days and every four years it becomes necessary to "get rid" of the surplus by adding one day.
Without a leap year, our chronology would be in complete disarray. It would take only three centuries for January to become an autumn month and six for it to fall in summer. Julius Caesar was the first to notice the need to put this system in order. At his time, the calendar was already 3 months behind real time, so in 45 BC. Caesar reformed time tracking by ordering to add that extra day every 4 years.
After the reform, the calendar year began to lag behind the real one by only 11 minutes and this error suited everyone. But over time, it became clear that this is not so little. In the 16th century, it was noticed that major Christian holidays shifted by 10 days and the error continued to confuse the binding of dates to the church calendar.
Pope Gregory XIII decided to eliminate this and carried out another reform, correcting the error of the Julian calendar. The Pope issued a decree according to which October 4, 1582, was immediately followed by October 15. In addition, the wise pontiff found a way to get rid of the accumulation of errors in the future - all leap years that are divisible by 100, by his decree, turned into ordinary ones, having 365 days.
The only exceptions were those that, in addition, were divisible by 400. These leap years numbered 366 days. Thus, every 400 years, three days were subtracted and this allowed, finally, to balance the calendar.
How to survive a lossless leap year 2020: tips from an astrologer
But if we still haven't convinced you and doubts about a leap year torment you, as before, listen to what Vera Khubelashvili, a professional astrologer, says about overcoming troubles in 2020.
1. There is no need to feed the reputation of a "bad" year with your actions and thoughts. No need to read scary stories and listen to "life stories" - act as if this year is no different from the previous ones. Hundreds of millions of people on our planet do just that, while they have no problems.
2. Don't take risks. This tip isn't just about leap years - you shouldn't compromise on something good for the sake of ephemeral future gain. But in 2020, everything is more difficult, because having lost something during these 366 days, you will be sure that it is in him - in an unsuccessful period. Be prudent and careful and you will not be affected by the adversity of a leap year.
3. Listen to the predictions, because astrological predictions are a great way to know in advance what lies ahead. If you are ready for future changes, no matter what, you can easily change your destiny. In this case, the leap year is not at all scary to you.
Astrologer Vera Khubelashvili is sure that we ourselves make a leap year unhappy, attracting problems with superstitions and expectations of trouble. Should you take any action in 2020? Of course not. Canceling a wedding, traveling, or starting a new business because of some mythical dangers is a game of hide and seek with failure. There are many superstitions and, thinking about them constantly, you can expect trouble almost every day. But think for yourself - can this be called a happy life?
See also - Scientists explain the purpose of nightmares - you can't do without them
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January 23, 2021
Hello dear readers of the KtoNaNovenkogo.ru blog. We know from school that there are leap years, and there are non-leap years.
Why this year is called that, when it comes, what signs and superstitions are associated with it - we will consider in this article.
Leap year is ...
To understand what a leap year is, you need to remember the history. During the entire existence of mankind, several calendars have changed. No, not those that hang on the wall, but those that date the chronology.
How did people even think of ordering the passing days and years? At all times there were individuals who were interested in what was happening not only to them, but also in the world around them. So they found that certain astronomical events recur.
For example, the day of the autumnal equinox (this is when the duration of daylight hours is equal to the duration of the night). Noticing such a phenomenon, people began to count the number of nights before this event next time. That's how intuitively we got the first calendar year.
It was only later, having proved that the Earth revolves around the Sun, scientifically determined that a year is the period of our planet's revolution around the sun, it was calculated that it is 365 days.
But here's the catch - this period is not exactly 365 days, but a little more - 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds .
How to be? A calendar year cannot last not an even number of days, but with additional hours, minutes and seconds. Such a chronology would create a lot of inconvenience.
As a result, the pundits decided that let the calendar year last 365 days, and every 4 years it will be increased by 1 day and named leap ... Therefore, the answer to the question: "How many days in a leap year?" unambiguous - 366 days .
Some will ask: "Why" fence the garden ", let it be so in the year always 365 days." Imagine how many additional hours will "run" in a century, in ten centuries. As a result, we would already celebrate the New Year not in winter, but in summer.
Of course, we would have lived according to the calendar, but the change of seasons would still occur according to the astronomical clock.
Let's conclude: leap year - this is "adjustment" calendar chronology, synchronizing it with the astronomical (solar) calendar.
What year is considered a leap year and when will be the next
So, we found out that every fourth year in the calendar is exactly 1 day longer than usual. That is, every fourth is equal to 366 days. Hence it year divisible by "4" ... For those who have forgotten, the expression "multiple of four" means that the number is divisible by "4" without a remainder. But...
There is an exception: years that are multiples of "4", but multiples of "100" and not multiples of "400", are not leap .
This is another small adjustment for the synchronization of the astronomical and "human" calendars. It was introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory the Eighth.
In other words, the calendar of chronology would correspond to the solar calendar, you need the following:
- 1 time in 4 years add 1 day;
- 1 time in 100 years to clean 1 day;
- 1 time in 400 years add 1 day.
- 1700 - non-leap;
- 1704 - leap;
- 1800 - non-leap;
- 1804 - leap;
- 1900 - common;
- 1904 - leap;
- 1996 - leap;
- 2000 - leap;
- 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, 2024 - leap;
- 2100 is a non-leap year.
When will there be a leap year ? For the convenience of determining leap years, you can skip the calculations, but just look at this table:
In which month to add an extra day, they did not think for a long time. The shortest month is February, the number of days in it is 28. Therefore, an extra day every 4 years was added to it.
Why February was the shortest month
Now let's resolve another question: "Why exactly did February be so short, only 28 days in an ordinary year?" The thing is that ancient romans considered the beginning of the year not January, but March. Their new year began with spring, they were so romantic.
Respectively, the end of the year fell on February. There are 12 months in a year. If you divide 365 days by 12, you get 30.417 days - the amount in one month. Agree, unacceptable. So they decided that the first month (March) should have 31 days, the next - 30 days, etc. In this situation, it turned out that the last month of the year, February, got only 29 days.
And this is not the end of the detective story. Emperor Octovian August decided that in his "imperial" month of August it turns out not enough days - only 30. Disorder, you need more - at least the maximum possible 31 days.
Where to "pinch off"? That's right, from the last month of the year, from February. This is how February became "scratched" - in non-leap years it has 28 days, and once every four years - 29.
Leap year superstitions
Almost all peoples of the world believe that a leap year is hard times ... During this period, "everything goes wrong" - natural and man-made disasters occur, health deteriorates, and personal misfortunes occur.
You don't have to look far for an example: 2020 is a leap year. And all of us this year are watching how the Covid pandemic is claiming thousands of lives across the planet.
And now - funny about sad things:
In superstitions that have developed over the centuries, both atheists and believers believe (albeit secretly).
What, according to signs, not allowed in leap years :
- make fateful decisions, for example, change jobs in the absence of significant prerequisites, start a new business, start a family, etc.;
- make major repairs;
- to have animals.
Personal opinion about a wedding in a leap year : I know married couples who got married in a leap year and have lived in love and harmony for several decades.
Maybe the warning about the dangers of getting married in a leap year only applies to those who are going to start a family of convenience? And mutual love is that magic wand that can remove all obstacles in life together?
To confirm or refute the prevailing superstitions, let's look back in time. Let's remember when were leap years , and what unusual happened during this period:
So, if we evaluate the listed facts sensibly, then we can conclude that sad events in the history of mankind occur both in leap years and in ordinary ones.
Psychologists note that a person always strives, on a conscious and subconscious level, to get rid of the negativity that appears in his life. Including, shifting responsibility for what happened to someone or something outside.
So it happened with leap years, we tend to blame "higher powers" for our own and other people's misfortunes. Say, it all happened because the year is a leap year.
Well, if it helps people protect themselves from stress, then why not?
Good luck everyone, everything will be fine!
The author of the article: Elena Kopeikina
Good luck to you! See you soon on the pages of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru
Everyone knows that an ordinary year consists of 365 days, and there is also a leap year, which lasts 1 day longer and consists of 366 days. Leap years happen every 4 years and the share of the replenishment of the number of days falls on the winter month - February. But what is it for and what is its meaning?
Let's try to figure it out.
The name "Leap" year originates in Latin. Previously, such a year was called "Bis Sextus" ... Translated from Latin in this way - "Second sixth".
Such a reckoning of time was introduced in ancient Rome, and in the Roman calendar BC, days were not counted in the same way in which it happens today. The Romans counted days in terms of the number of days remaining until the next month. They "created" an extra day between February 23rd and 24th. On February 24, they called “ sectus ", Which meant" the sixth day before the beginning of March. " In a leap year, when an additional day was inserted between February 23 and 24, which was the second 24 number, February 24 occurred twice, which was called “ bis sectus ", As previously mentioned -" Second sixth "day.
You might guess that the phrase “ Bis sectus "In our way, can be easily transformed into" leap ", because the words of the name are more than consonant. But in the Gregorian calendar, the "new" day, as we know, is not inserted between February 23rd and 24th, at the end of February - on the 28th. Thus, once every four years, we have the opportunity to see such a day as February 29 on our calendars.
But what is it for?
A typical year consists of 365 days, we are used to it, for us it is commonplace and does not carry any secret in itself. But this is not entirely true, and in fact it is not entirely true, I stream that every year is equal to 365.4 days based on astronomical and mathematical calculations, that is, 365 days and 6 hours. This calculation of time is very inconvenient, isn't it better to have a complete cycle of the day? And the presence of these extra hours (although there is no extra time) certainly leads to certain shifts in the perception of the flow of time by people and their biorhythms.
Based on this, scientists astronomers decided to calculate each multiple of four years in the amount of 366 days (using 4 excerpts of 6 hours from other years), and all the rest - 365 days exactly. Dear Readers! Thank you for your attention and have a nice day!
Greetings, our dear readers. Today is 2020. According to the calendar, it is a leap year. At the same time, many consider it unsuccessful, as well as all other similar years. But is it really so?
For me personally, this year did not start very well, although ... Or maybe I just pay more attention to failures? Maybe this is more subconscious pressure? In general, we asked this question and therefore this article was born.
In essence, one additional day is added every four years - February 29th. There is nothing wrong with that, just an adjustment of the solar calendar is taking place, figuratively speaking. But somehow I once came across very different calendars, of different eras, and it turns out that they knew about astronomy even in antiquity, but this is a separate topic for conversation.
In general, in those calendars, one day appeared in four years. In this regard, many nationalities have their own signs and beliefs for this particular day and year in general. Let's figure it out together.
Leap year: what does it mean and why is it called?
We will try to explain everything more clearly, to be honest, I read several detailed articles on this matter and many hours of video. As a result, I had to digest for a long time, but if you discard all unnecessary, then everything falls into place.
There is only one problem - the calendar and solar calendars do not converge. If we take one year, then when the calendar year is over, the solar year is just ending. So it turns out that according to our calendar we have already passed into the new year, but the solar one is still continuing.
And only after the expiration of the fourth calendar year, the difference with the solar year becomes exactly one day. That is why all the nationalities added one more day in the fourth year that everything turned out right.
No matter how hard a person tries to do everything differently, it is impossible to divide the year exactly in minutes and seconds, there are always extra minutes left. According to one of the legends, once everything was smooth, but the destruction of the planet Phaethon took place. She was the sacred planet of balance and desire. And her death contributed to the fall of man in the network of irrepressible passions - the fall, in other words.
Leap year translates as second sixth , from Latin. This day was "invented" back in the reign of Julius Caesar in 46 BC. e.
It was then that this shift occurred in the calendars. In revenge Phaethon, an asteroid belt appeared, as a result of which there was a shift in gravitational forces, not only of the Earth, but also of other planets.
It is believed that there is a rhythm of life - in fact, it is a cycle of 4 years, and everything that is a multiple of four. For example, at the end of a leap year, you need to sum up some results, analyze past moments and plan for the future.
Our ancestors, the Slavs, were well aware of these rhythms. For example, the Old Russian calendar widely used the number "4" to define a variety of periods. The days were divided into 16 periods (four times four), and the years were united by 16-year cycles of Svarog Circles, in each of which the Sun passes through all 16 Halls in succession. This is Svarog's day. Until now, 16 years - the day of Svarog - are considered the border of growing up. Seven days - (weeks) fit in a month. The affairs to which we devote a whole month are already more significant than the affairs of one week.
In addition, we call this year the Kasyanov year, namely February 29 - Kasyanov day. But we'll talk about this a little later, there are also many interesting things.
Whether we like it or not, the solar system itself does not set the biological rhythm. And already the person himself endows the leap year with various religious or other properties. And by the way, not in all nationalities this year is considered bad.
Kasyanov day - February 29, what does it mean?
Since this day appears only once every four years, the mystical meaning is equated with it. For example, we call it Kasyanov Day or Koscheev (yes, yes, the same Koschey from the fairy tale). We can say that February 29 is the day of Koshchei the Immortal. There is an interesting legend, although it does not fit in with a real person.
According to legend, on the way of Kasyan and Nicholas, a cart got stuck in the mud. Kasyan refused to help, but Nikolai helped pull the cart out. Then the Lord ordered this: Nicholas will be remembered twice a year, in May and December. And kasyana is only one day in four years.
Since then, February 29 has become his day. Evil Kasyan has become, he is remembered only once every four years, and therefore promises various troubles. Well, the whole year is considered unsuccessful.
There is another legend according to which the Lord was very angry with Kasyan and sent him to hell. But later he took pity on him and allowed one day in four years to leave eternal torment and rest on Earth. But Kasyan himself is very angry at the same time, therefore he does various dirty tricks.
On this day, everyone is advised not to leave their home, so that something bad does not happen on the street. But sometimes you have to go somewhere, do something, that's why some reservations appeared that help to avoid trouble.
For example, if you need to go somewhere they say: “I walk and follow the leap trail. I came down from the threshold, and I will return here. " ... When planting in the garden in the spring of a leap year, it was necessary to say the following: "In leap soot, I'll wait to die" ... And at the wedding, a non-canonical saying was attributed to the priest: "I crown it with a crown, not a leap end" ... However, neither the church nor science recognizes anything special for a leap.
Of course, in the modern world it is impossible to stay at home all day, then it is advised to at least go out after lunch and, in general, just be careful and attentive. The most important thing is that on this day you cannot make large and serious transactions, important decisions. It is better to postpone all serious matters to the next day at least, or even to the next year))))
Why is this year considered a bad and difficult year?
The most important reason is the superstition of the people themselves. Over the centuries, a person has already developed a certain reflex. They say if the year is a leap year, then it is difficult and mentally a person begins to think about bad things, notice more bad moments, and so on.
Of course, everyone associates it with Kasyan. They say this is his year, which means that throughout the year he will do nasty things and destroy the happiness of people, figuratively speaking.
But, if you look from the other side, then according to Slavic beliefs, this year it is necessary to sum up the results, intermediate. After all, the cycle lasts exactly four years. Summing up, we compare any events and analyze. Perhaps it turns out that many people had a lot of bad moments in the past, bad harvests, bad sales, and so on. And if in this year the death of a loved one also occurred, then of course they are trying to reduce everything simply to an unlucky year.
Here again it turns out that the matter is simply in the people themselves. But let's look a little from a different angle. In China, this year is very happy - the Chinese are trying to spend more money than in normal years. It is believed that the wallet will not suffer from this.
They also have an increase in fertility, it is believed that children are born with a "silver spoon in their mouth", have high intelligence and achieve great success in their careers and creativity.
In Scotland, this year is considered the year of "brides". A very interesting tradition, at this time, girls themselves can propose to men to marry them. At the same time, the man who rejected the bride must pay a fine. There were a wide variety of fines (ransom payments), while those who could prove that they were married were exempted from them.
At the same time, few people refused to beautiful brides, by the way, the Scots themselves say that all the foundations at this time are turned upside down, while no one talks about the bad, one might even say on the contrary, everything suits everything.
In the modern world, more people already boil down to the fact that a leap year is a time to take stock, get rid of the old, accept something new, and so on. Isn't it a smarter solution to many problems?
It is very important not to dwell on the bad, to be able to draw conclusions, make the right decisions and strive for the best. It is also believed that people born on February 29 are special. Fate has prepared a special mission for such people. They say that they become prophets, bearers of revelations, extraordinary personalities.
What can and cannot do in a leap year?
To begin with, I made the final conclusion for myself in the paragraph above. It all depends on the people themselves, superstitions. And it is worth looking at all this more reasonably. In any case, we have collected the most common signs for a leap year.
I would also like to note that most of the nicknames migrated from Kasyanov's day. Please note that initially all bad things were associated with one day. But fear has large eyes and some signs have become associated with a whole year.
Let's just list them.
- You cannot get married and get divorced, as well as get pregnant, have abortions and give birth this year. All this leads to misery. Although in other nationalities the opposite is true.
- Nothing new can be started, for example, a new apartment, a new job, even a new hairstyle cannot be done, and so on. Here I am more inclined to believe that everything new always scares people away. But as practice shows, not everything new is so bad, sometimes even very good.
- You cannot talk about your plans for the future, otherwise nothing will work out.
- This year, the mortality rate rises, and more cataclysms increase. This is partly true. Scientists note that in recent years, more and more global cataclysms occur. And the leap year does not stand out among them.
- You can't drown kittens, you can't buy, sell or change cattle either. Although this can be attributed to the second point.
- You cannot buy for death this year, otherwise death will be close. Of course, I understand everything, but do not people buy such items prepare for their way to heaven?
- Sowing and planting this year is impossible - isn't it strange? But there is one caveat, if you sow and plant, you need to read the conspiracy: "In leap soot, I'll wait to die."
- It reaches the point of absurdity: If we hear the howling of a dog, we read the prayer: “The whole family is with me (the names of your family members). Amen". Well, how many times can we hear dogs howling? For example, we have two dogs living in our yard, and many dogs also walk, how much will I pray?
- The first tooth of the baby was not celebrated, otherwise the rest of the teeth would be bad.
- If a person ends up in prison, then, seeing off, the relatives should say the following words: “The leap year will leave, but the servant of God (name) will come home. Amen".
- Arriving at the cemetery on parental Saturday, first hand out commemorations to three people. And only then commemorate the dead.
- You can't just come to the forest and pick mushrooms or berries. This also applies to medicinal herbs. When you come to the forest, you need to say: “Leap year, father, keep the bad things for yourself, and let me take the dear ones. Amen".
- If a funeral service (for a stranger) takes place in the church, you cannot enter it.
Now let's take a little look at the signs inherent in this year. As already understood from the above, it is impossible to marry and get married in these years. But it is not so. It turns out that you can, but you must follow a few rules:
- the bride's dress should be as long as possible;
- jewelry must be vintage, antique. And even better if they are inherited from relatives;
- the ring cannot be worn on gloves;
- newlyweds cannot look back on their way to the place of registration;
- the tablecloth that was laid on the wedding table should be laid for each anniversary for the next three years;
- you cannot sell a veil and a wedding dress, with it you can sell women's happiness;
- before the wedding, the bride must not have a party, otherwise the husband will be walking;
- young people put a coin in their shoes as a talisman;
- after the conclusion of the union on the 3rd, 7th and 40th day, the husband needs to be fed from the spoon from which he ate for the wedding;
- weddings are only welcome, and the church itself does not recognize bad days and years. Just do not choose the days of fasting and commemoration of the departed. In this case, the married are not subject to divorce! Remember this.
Baptizing a child is not only possible, but also necessary. In a leap year, they tried to baptize children early, because then he has a guardian angel and protects him from all troubles and bad weather.
In addition, if a woman becomes pregnant in a rainy year, then her hair should not be cut and dyed. Although, if I am not mistaken, then this should not be done in any year.
And of course, even if they say that it is not worth giving birth to a child this year, there is no need to be afraid. On the contrary, we set ourselves up for a positive, we experience more positive emotions, we do nothing with hair, we obey the doctors and give birth to a pretty, smart and special baby)))) Children do not ask us when they will be born.
They say you can't build a new year in a leap year. In fact, you can, if you need to. The most important thing is to appease the brownie. It is advisable to do this at night, at the construction site, bringing salt and sugar. and when you leave, you cannot look back.
They also say that you cannot move to a leap year. Most of all, this is due to the loss of that energy that protected you in your home. And also with the evil eye. But if you need to move, then you just need to set yourself up and carry out ceremonies in the new year in order to strengthen the positive energy. Remember, you can jinx someone who is afraid of the evil eye.
I have heard and read more than once that you cannot pick mushrooms in a leap year. And here the truth turned out to be partial. The fact is that the mycelium is reborn every 4 years, or something like that. It turns out that the mushrooms are aging. They also have the ability to accumulate harmful substances in themselves. Therefore, it turns out that old mushrooms can harm humans.
But the problem is that we do not know when such a period occurs and it is not necessarily a leap year. Therefore, when picking mushrooms, you need to be careful and it is advisable to consult with good mushroom pickers.
I also found a belief that you can't sing carols in a leap year. The fact is that dressing up as an animal, one could then adopt its habits and characteristics. And caroling candy meant losing your happiness. True, over time, this sign has lost its former strength.
The question is often asked: Is it possible to buy a new car in a given year? If we take into account the beliefs, then the answer is unequivocal: No. In general, during this period it is worth giving up large purchases. BUT, again there is a "but". In the modern world, you can buy a car or an apartment, for example. It's all about superstition. Well, if you want to save yourself from something, then just postpone the purchase to the next year.
If we take statistics, then in a leap year there are as many accidents as in simple years. Even every year the number of accidents generally decreases, I mean serious and major accidents. Well, if you have been saving up for a long time and bought the car of your dreams, then you are guaranteed happiness for all years, and does not depend on superstitions.
Regarding the celebration of anniversaries, especially the 40th anniversary. According to superstition, it is not worth celebrating anniversaries in these years, although no justification was found. That's just not possible and that's it. I believe that you should not take this seriously, if you want to celebrate a holiday, then you should not refuse it. The only thing is that you shouldn't celebrate your anniversary during Lent.
I noticed that many people write that they cannot see off a leap year. It's not like that at all. According to beliefs, this year must be seen off in order to spend all the bad weather and adversity, so that in the new year everything will be fine with us and everyone will be happy.
It is advisable, seeing off a leap year, to read a prayer. BUT, so that no one gets confused, it is considered that the last night of the year: from December 30 to December 31. It is on this night that the prayer should be read:
Summing up the results, the church and Old Believers gave several recommendations that will help you survive a leap year safely:
- Go to church more often, this will improve protection. If you are not yet baptized, be sure to go through this rite.
- Round objects such as coins or jewelry should not be picked up this year.
- Wear a cross or other charms on your body.
- On the eve of a leap year, be sure to cleanse your body in any way you can. For example, in the old days, vinegar was diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 1, poured over it, then washed off with clean plain water and went to sleep. You can just wash yourself in clean water.
- To protect the energy field on February 29, you should burn a calendar page, saying: " Evil leave, dashingly disappear, help good, illuminate a clear path and a bright path for me " .
Leap year 2020 - what to expect?
Since I am writing this article in 2020, everything above applies to any leap year. But many are interested in the question about our 2020.
Let's try to speculate a little. In general, because of a bad year, many talk about big problems in the world and in our country as well. For example, they talk about the coronavirus pandemic that came from China.
Yes, it has become a big problem for many, for example, the collapse of the exchange markets, the decline in oil prices, all this negatively affects our country.
But, in reality, this is just a coincidence, because the whole world politics has long been in strong tension and sooner or later something must happen.
And in addition to the coronavirus, China has long been a carrier of new viruses that bring many victims. Although it can look from the other side: the flu kills a large number of people every year. There is also SARS (similar to coronavirus), and there are many more diseases that are present all over the world.
The main thing is not to panic, take precautions, follow the rules of hygiene and just monitor your health. You need to understand that with coronavirus, other diseases are activated, or rather, complications occur. Therefore, most often older people die, those 60 years or more.
Speaking of the fact that the ruble is falling, the country's economy is collapsing…. Although why is it collapsing? In general, I would not attribute everything to a bad year. We were warned about many changes, or at least some major changes were mentioned. We just live in a time when change is inevitable. At the same time, as always, some will be positive, some negative.
Prices are rising - it has been and always will be. Salaries are getting lower, I don’t know that, in our city this is not observed at all. They simply do not grow in comparison with the prices of equipment and products)))
There is a lot of talk about the fact that a lot of negativity is predicted for this year, both in the ordinary life of all people and in the fate of the country. It seems to me that this is not entirely true. Just for example, take my town specifically - then we are celebrating 300 years of the city. By this date, a lot of good things are being done today. The town is directly transformed both externally and internally. Take the fact that the unemployment rate is very low.
On the part of my work - an increase in salaries (and noticeably), the purchase of new equipment, the prospects for interesting business trips, advanced training at VGIK ... In general, much more positive than in ordinary years.
In family life, somehow everything became even more colorful and calmer. Of course, there is something that will not come true according to the plan (I had to cancel the trip to the sea), but in general, everything is not even bad.
So what can we expect this year? The answer is simple - just a little, just like in ordinary years. The main thing is not to get hung up on the bad, and be able to see the positive aspects. You need to try to experience more positive moments.
My advice is simple: try not to be led by superstitions, just try to think things through this year before you make a serious purchase or deal. Balance all the risks and all the benefits. Be honest, don't lie. If you doubt it, transfer it to next year. But in any case, tune yourself to the positive and remember: everything can be fixed, the main thing is to want to do it.
In general, this is all that we wanted to tell you today. If you haven't found any solid tips for 2020, just read above. This year is no different from other leap years and simple years.
You can just train yourself to draw conclusions in a leap year, sum up some intermediate results and not dwell on superstitions, because many of them actually turn out to be absurd.
If you want to add something or say against it, write in the comments below. Also join us at Classmates and read us on our website .
All for now and see you again in the next issues.Incredible facts
2020 is a leap year that is associated with many troubles and dangers. Where do these superstitions come from, what can and cannot be done in a leap year, and how to protect yourself from failure?
How many days are there in a leap year?
Every four years, an extra day is added to the Gregorian calendar to keep it in sync with the solar year.
One solar year - the length of time it takes for a planet to complete a revolution around the Sun is approximately 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds ... The extra 5 plus hours is the reason we have a leap year.
A leap year is a year that has 366 days and occurs every 4 years, with an extra day added to the calendar on February 29th.
Leap year history
© Fernando Cortes
The term "leap year" dates back to the time of Julius Caesar. It was by the decree of Gaius Julius Caesar that the Julian calendar was introduced.
The early Romans had a 355-day calendar of 12 months. So that the holidays always fall at the same time of the year, a month of 22 or 23 days was added in every second year.
However, the addition was irregular, and to simplify matters, Julius Caesar reformed in 45 BC, lengthening some months and adding days to add up to 365 days. The calculations themselves were made by the astronomer Sozigen.
Once every 4 years after February 28, February 29 followed, and the year was considered a leap year.
Later in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII improved the calendar and introduced a rule stating that a leap day was added in a year that was a multiple of the 4th.
Here are some more interesting facts about leap years:
1. Leap year occurs every 4 years, but not only
The point of leap years is to help align our 365-day Gregorian calendar with the solar calendar, and to make sure we celebrate solar events such as the vernal and autumnal equinoxes with some regularity each year.
However, even an extra day in February every 4 years does not fully offset the offset. For this reason, scientists sometimes add leap second as it was done, for example, on June 30, 2015 at 11:59:60.
Want to remember which year will be a leap year? Everything is very simple. If the last two digits of a year are divisible by 4 (2016, 2020, 2024, etc.), then that year is a leap year.
Century years are the exception to this rule. They must be divisible by 400 to be leap years. For example, 2000 and 2400 are leap years, but 2100 are not.
2.February 29 - the day when women propose to men
After Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582, the idea of adding February 29 every 4 years seemed so ridiculous that a British play joked that it would be the day women should trade dress for pants and act like men.
The performance was supposed to be a satire, but some feminists got inspired and by the early 18th century women were taking advantage of the day to propose to men.
The tradition called "Bachelor's Day" is still preserved in the UK, where some sellers even offer discounts to women who are going to offer a hand and heart to their chosen one.
3. Born on a leap day is very rare
The probability of birth on February 29 is 1 in 1461, so it is very rare to meet two people born on this day.
It is even more rare that children in the same family will be born on a leap day. But this is exactly what happened in the Henriksen family from Norway. Heidi Henriksen was born on 02/29/1960, her brother Olav was born four years later on 02/29/1964, and the youngest Leif-Martin was born on 07/29/1968.
According to World Heritage Encyclopedias early 19th century James Milne Wilson, who became the 8th Prime Minister of Tasmania, was born and died on a leap day ... He died on February 29, 1880, on his "17th" birthday, or at the age of 68 by conventional means.
4. Swedes and hobbits celebrated on February 30
The date February 30 is used as a sarcastic date to denote something that will never happen or will not be done.
However, such a date did indeed occur in Sweden and Finland in 1712, when an additional leap day was added in February to avoid errors in the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.
There are also fictional characters who celebrate February 30 every year. In the works of J.R.R. Tolkien's hobbits developed the Shire calendar. This calendar had 12 months in a year, each of which consisted of 30 days, including "solmat" (corresponding to February).
List of leap years of the 20th and 21st centuries
1904, 1908, 1912, 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940, 1944, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, 2024, 2028, 2032, 2036, 2040, 2044, 2048, 2052, 2056, 2060, 2064, 2068, 2072, 2076, 2080, 2084, 2088, 2092, 2096.
Signs: what cannot be done in a leap year?
Leap years were perceived as less fortunate, since February 29 in the national calendar was considered Afternoon Kasyan Visokos ... Saint Kasian was considered evil and formidable, bringing misfortune to people.
According to one of the legends, Kasian knew about all the plans of God, about which he told the demons, for which he was punished for 3 years, and in the 4th year he was given relief and sent to earth.
Kasyan was subject to all the winds that he sent to people and livestock, brought bad weather and disease.
According to superstition, a leap year is considered the year of all kinds of misfortunes and can bring more accidents, accidents and deaths. However, this mystical phenomenon has a completely scientific justification: since the year increases by one day, the number of misfortunes and deaths also grows.
They tried to spend a leap year, and in particular a leap day, as calmly as possible, not to tempt fate, not to take risks, and on February 29, even once again, not to go out.
1. Start new
A leap year is considered extremely unfavorable for any new projects and acquisitions. You should not start building a house, starting your own business, concluding contracts, moving to a new place.
All this threatens with financial losses, unexpected difficulties, setbacks and troubles. It is better to postpone any serious decisions, and everything new is not worth planning.
2. Getting married and getting married and getting divorced
© AndreyPopov / Getty Images Pro
May, Friday 13th and leap years are not the best time to tie the knot. It is believed that those who marry or get married in May will face adversity throughout their life in marriage. The reason people avoid getting married on Friday the 13th is also obvious.
In most countries, many couples try not to marry in leap years, as the marriage is believed to be unsuccessful. According to statistics and research, leap marriages are less happy than regular ones.
Divorce is also not advised in a leap year, as this promises loneliness for life.
3. Buying a house or car
A leap year is considered a fateful year. If you are thinking about buying a new house or apartment, it is better to wait until next year.
If the need for new housing does not require delay, approach the choice of a house carefully and slowly. The same goes for buying a car. It may be superstition, but a leap year is considered bad for large purchases.
4. Celebrate your birthday ahead of time
If you are one of the lucky ones born on a leap day, then most likely you are celebrating your birthday on February 28 or March 1, or not at all.
In a leap year, a birthday should be celebrated only on February 29, otherwise, according to signs, something bad may happen this year. Of course, this is just a superstition, but maybe sometimes it is worth playing it safe?
5. Change jobs
In many countries, it is considered a bad omen to change jobs, be laid off or take a new job in a leap year. Such changes could lead to financial hardship for the years to come.
If you are not superstitious, are not afraid to take risks, and you cannot stay in a hopeless place, feel free to look for a new job and, perhaps, luck will smile at you.
6. Have a baby
There is a belief that children born or conceived in a leap year are difficult to bring up, may develop unknown or serious diseases, or be unlucky. Their lives can be filled with different challenges.
At the same time, children born in a leap year were considered unique and gifted, endowed with unusual abilities, capable of imparting special knowledge to those around them, which, despite all the difficulties, will live an amazing fate.
7. Talk about your plans
In a leap year, you should not dwell on what you have in mind or planned, even to close people, since your plan may never come true.
There are other signs in a leap year:
You cannot pick mushrooms, as this can promise death.
It is considered a sin to drown kittens in a leap year.
It is not recommended for pregnant women to cut their hair, because this threatens the birth of a weak child who will often get sick.
Throughout the year, you should not pick up round objects so as not to frighten off luck.
Fortune-telling and caroling were forbidden, which could lead to misfortune for relatives and friends.
If a girl first had her periods in a leap year, it was impossible to tell anyone about it, otherwise she would give her feminine energy and happiness.
Long and serious trips were also worth postponing until better times. The protection of a person this year was weak, and troubles and difficulties could await him on the way.
What you can do in a leap year
Make an offer
A leap year, namely a leap day, is considered the only day a woman can propose to a man. At the same time, it is highly undesirable for a man to refuse such an offer.
Read also: February 29 - the time when women propose to men
If you are ready for this step, you do not have to do it on February 29th. In the modern world, a woman has the right to propose to a man at any time of the year.
What can you do to avoid unhappiness in a leap year?
If you are getting married on a leap year, then the wedding dress should be long. The longer the dress, the longer the marriage will last. The bride is also advised to wear some sort of family decoration. At the same time, you should not give your wedding dress, gloves and veil to anyone. A wedding ring should not be worn on a glove so that the relationship is serious and solid.
In order to protect the marriage from misfortune, it was advised to put a coin in the shoes of the bride and groom.
After marriage, they were not advised to look back.
The tablecloth on the table of the newlyweds had to be preserved and covered for three years in a row during anniversaries in order to ward off misfortune and discord in the family.
If you are going on a long and long journey, then you need to cross the threshold, bow, express gratitude for all the good and try not to allow thoughts of bad.
When a child is born in a leap year, godparents should be looked for among blood relatives.
When divorced, to avoid unpleasant consequences, spouses were advised to buy new towels and take them to church, praying for protection.
If a child had his first tooth in a leap year, then this event was not celebrated so that the teeth were not damaged.
If you started building a house, then you need to put coins in the place of the foundation to protect the house from evil.