Flu starts: what to do

Flu starts: what to do

Influenza is an acute viral infection. The main pathways are air-drip and contact-household. From the moment of infection with the virus before the appearance of signs of the disease passes from 1 to 4 days.

Content:

  • How to recognize influenza at an early stage

  • Treatment at the first signs of influenza

  • Features of flu therapy in children

The need for timely treatment is caused by the seriousness of complications that can cause flu. Among them: bronchitis, angina, pneumonia, otitis, sinusitis, pulmonary edema or brain swelling, meningitis, myocarditis.

That is why it is important to carry out the prevention of ARVI, carefully refer to changes in the state of their health, and in the event of the beginning of the disease - immediately take action.

How to recognize influenza at an early stage

It is possible to suspect that the influenza can be if the deterioration of well-being began suddenly.

The main features include:

  1. High body temperature (up to 39-40 degrees) preceding chills.

  2. Weakness and pain in the muscles, a feeling of breakdown.

  3. Headache (localized in the forehead area, abrasion arcs, temples, eyes).

  4. Fear of light and tearing.

A man derived to the flu has a reddened and swollen face, a brown eyes, the mucous throat is bright red.

At the initial stage of the disease, there are no typical signs of viral infection (nasal congestion, runny nose), they appear the next day. It may be observed in the throat combined with a dry cough. For 3-5 days, there is a slight amount of sputum.

Treatment at the first signs of influenza

At the initial stage of the disease, an important stored bed mode. It is prohibited from the risk of severe complications and its high contagious. Increase the volume of fluid consumed due to herbal teas (with raspberry leaves, currants or chamomile), drink with lemon and ginger, horses and compotes. Food should be light and rich in vitamins.

When chills, the cooling of the limbs and the pallor of the skin - the sick warmed, the cover of the blanket. With heat and redness of the skin - undress for exhaust heat.

The room must be regularly ventilated and maintain a comfortable level of humidity. A doctor call to the house is required.

In the treatment of influenza, apply:

  • Antiviral agents. In the first 48 hours and hour hours of the course of disease, Zanamivir proved, oseltamiviri peramivir. Reduce the duration of the disease helps Arbidol, Inhavirin, Kagole, remantadine, Tiloron, cycloferon.

Important! Treaty at body temperature above 38.5 degrees. With a lower indicator, allow the body to deal with the disease yourself.

Arbidol (Umiphenovir) shows the effectiveness against viruses A and B, 600 mg is used for a day, 5-7 days. Inhavirin activates the protective functions of the body and reduces the risk of complications.

  • Antipyretic process. The inflammatory process and reduce the temperature. The main active substance of drugs may be paracetamol, ibuprofen or nimesulide. Take pills, powders for cooking or hiding pills. There are integrated tools containing additionally vitamin C and antiviral component. For example, Anvimax powder.

  • Drugs from pain and inflammation in the throat. They are locally and include: pills for resorption with antiseptic, sprays, lollipops with menthol and eucalyptus. The pharmacies present a wide selection of grammidine in tablets and sprays, Lizobakt, Miramistin, hexoral, anti-angina, Tantuum Verde, Inhalipte.

  • Means for the treatment of cough. If the cough is dry and caused by irritation of the mucosa of the throat, then antitussive drugs are prescribed - synecode, Omnitus, etc. When clusted sputum in the respiratory tract, expectorant means are used - the ADC, ascoril, ambroxol, licorice syrup. The purpose of the application is to sneak the mucus and facilitate its conclusion.

  • Medicines to facilitate nasal congestion. It is important for a symptom to facilitate breathing and improving the ventilation of the lungs. Includes xylometazoline-based preparations, naphtizin, deryvin, afin, tizin, sneake, etc.

  • Antiallergic drugs. Serve to prevent the allergic reaction to the received medicines, relieve inflammation and swelling of mucous membranes. Include: Zoda, Tuese, Zirtek, diazoline.

It is impossible to immediately take antibiotics, they do not act on viruses. Showing only in the presence of signs of complication by microbial infection, high temperatures for more than 5 days. Do not be fond of aspirin, it dilutes blood and launches the spread of the virus in the body.

To reduce the symptoms of influenza complex treatment at home, it is enough. Use folk remedies as auxiliary therapy: honey, lemon and ginger. In the house you can set a saucer with a sliced ​​onion and garlic.

On complete recovery can be calculated after 7 days, and in the case of attachment of a bacterial infection - three weeks later.

Features of flu therapy in children

The immunity of the children's body is weaker than an adult. The risk to infect viral infection in children is much higher.

The first signs of the appearance of the disease in children are not particularly different from adults. The body temperature increases, passivity, federation, lethargy and dry curves appear.

Features of the help of children's symptoms of influenza include:

  • Preventing temperature increases to high values ​​in order to avoid seizures (38.5 degrees).

  • Required abundant drink (tea with chamomile or lemon, wild rose, compote, morse).

  • In the treatment of young children, only candles, suspensions, powders or syrups are used.

  • It is prohibited to use acetylsalicylic acid and drugs based on it, difficult complications are possible.

  • Independent treatment of kids is not recommended, a pediatrician challenge to the house for the purpose of drugs is required. At high temperatures, at all small children - cause ambulance.

The main thing at the beginning of the influenza in children is to stop breeding viruses, remove intoxication of the body and overcome the defeat of the respiratory organs.

Medicinal preparations include:

  1. Antiviral agents: Citovir-3, Arbidol, Tamiflu, Zanamivir, Viferon, Infpopheron, Amixin, Isoproprosin.

IMPORTANT! Pay attention to the age from which this or that medicine is allowed. Preparations are available in different forms: for example, viriferon for kids - in the form of candles, zanamivir - in the form of inhalation from five years. Infpopheron - in the form of droplets for the nose.

  1. The means whose action is aimed at improving the overall condition: cefector d in the form of candles, nurofen, paracetamol, Panadol in syrup to reduce body temperature and anesthesia. Remote anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. Symptomatic treatment: Includes funds to reduce throat pain (Tanuts Verde, Inhalipte, Miramistin, grammidine, hexoral, etc.), cough relief (Gedeliks, Ambroben, Bromgexin, Ascoril) and nasal breathing (Nazivin, Vibrotil, Nazol, Rhinostop etc.).

  3. Allergy-based drugs, zirtek in drops, are necessary to remove mucous edema, reduce inflammation.

With the easiest course of infection, the treatment lasts 5-7 days, with more difficult - up to 10 days.

When the symptoms are found, it is important to stay at home and start a comprehensive treatment. At a temperature of 40-41 degrees, vomiting, cramps, shortness of breath, arrhythmias, lowering pressure - is shown hospitalization in the hospital.

The text is presented solely for informational purposes. We urge not to engage in self-medication. When the first symptoms appear - contact your doctor. Recommended reading: "

Why not do self-medication?

".

Flu

The flu is one of the sharp viral diseases, which relates to the category of ARVI (acute respiratory and viral infections), but does not identify them all. According to disappointing statistics, every year a huge number of patients die from the influenza viruses around the world. This is explained not only by the many strains of the disease, but also a huge number of complications to which the disease can lead the patient. That is why awareness of the symptoms of this disease and the ability to distinguish it from other viral diseases helps to start rehabilitation measures in a timely manner and minimize the complexity of flu flowing in each case.

The main complexity in identifying the influenza virus every time its possible mutation from one species in another is its possible mutation. Annually emerging strains do not allow the human immunity developed as a result of the previous infection with this virus, to protect against repeated occurrence of the disease.

Seasonal epidemics often affect a large number of children, older and weakened people. For pregnant women, the flu is very dangerous because it may apply irreparable harm to the fetus. Newborn children have congenital maternal immunity to the virus, but if there is no mother, the virus is a high danger for such children. After a disease, a resistant immunity is formed to the virus, however, the variability of influenza leads to a regular transfer of the disease when a collision with a source of illness.

According to statistics, even the economic indicators of a number of countries may suffer due to seasonal exacerbations of the epidemiological situation on the influenza, which, due to high contagiousness, is able to instantly affect entire groups. About 15% of the entire population of the planet can over a year to overcome various strains of the disease, and 0.3% of them in the end dies.

It is important to understand that the flu refers to ORVI (the most extensive group of infections), but is not identifying such a diagnosis [one] . There are quite a few sharp respiratory and viral infections, the flu is one of them, but far from the only one. It is necessary to clearly know to correctly choose the tactics of the treatment of the disease. Also, do not confuse influenza, ARVI and ORZ (acute respiratory diseases), in a group of which are not only infected with viral nature, but also many bacterial infections. In the mass consciousness, it should be entrenched that the flu is one of the diseases of the ARVI group, and all ORVI are referred to the category of ARZ, where bacterial infections are also included. The diagnosis should always be a specific disease, and not the above-mentioned groups of diseases. The feature of the influenza is that after many other diseases of the ARVI group, a person feels perfectly a week after the first manifestations, which cannot be said about the asthenic state after the influenza, in which such symptoms, like cough, weakness, sweating and fatigue can be maintained for several weeks This is due to a decrease in the immunological reactivity of the organism, which in turn may lead to the exacerbation of chronic diseases or the occurrence of secondary bacterial complications. A person feels a lot of asthenia signs for a very long time - due to the fact that the virus changes the composition of the blood of a person, lowering the number of leukocytes in it. Therefore, it should not be hurried immediately after the disease to strengthen into the usual working pace, but to pay enough time to restore the body.

Typology of viruses

Related immunityUnder the viruses implies intracellular parasites that are not adapted by nature to extracellular survival [2] . This means that for reproduction of the influenza virus, human (or any living) is necessary. The flu virus selectively affects the epithelium of the respiratory tract, mostly trachea. Causes cell damage, it uses them to build new viral particles and is distributed by the body, causing intoxication.

The most dangerous for humanity consider 3 varieties of influenza viruses:

  • Type A, which is most often found in both people and some animals, mutate and causes seasonal epidemics or pandemics;
  • Type B, characteristic of morbidity only for human individuals, more often than other children and usually not forming epidemiological situations;
  • The type C, which is peculiar to people, little studied due to the weakness of the severity of the symptoms and the absence of severe consequences, rarely found.

Each of the above-mentioned types of virus can manifest itself several strains, so for a deeper understanding, it is necessary to consider the most common types of influenza for a deeper understanding.

Spanish flu

"Spaniard" during the First World War claimed the lives of more than 100 million people across the planet [3] . According to statistics, about 4-5% of the only population of the planet died from it at that time. Spanish flu in early 20th century was distributed throughout Europe, Asia and America, and he received its name only due to the fact that there was no censorship in Spain, and the outbreak of the epidemic could be opened in the newspapers. About a thousand sickness died every day from the epidemic.

The complexity of this type of influenza was that the disease hit no children or weakened old people, but quite healthy and strong people aged 20-40 years, developing very quickly. In 2009, doctors again spoke about this strain, but already under a different name: in the modern world, the H1N1 strain became known as "swine flu". He is now not a source of hard pandemic, but it is randor to an ordinary seasonal flu. Modern medicine is able to effectively deal with bacterial infections joining the virus by using antibacterial agents. The strain itself due to the presence of immunity-generated immunity, is spreading and manifests every time weaker, which is today the formidable "Spaniard" today with a conventional viral infection during the cold season.

Swine flu

BacteriaModern flu virus The H1N1 strain is called swine flu and has high contagiousness among people [four] . The danger lies in the fact that, with a given variety of virus, the body develops processes that promote the reproduction of conditionally pathogenic bacteria, which often leads to bacterial complications that must be treated in a timely manner in order to avoid deaths.

In 1930, swine flu was found and studied by Richard Shup. The next 50 years of outbreaks of this infection doctors were observed in Mexico, USA and Canada among pigs. Infection of people occurred in extremely rare cases with very close contact with the fallen animals and did not look like that swine flu, which is familiar to people today.

A truly dangerous for a man of pork flu has become in 2009 as a result of mutation of two of his strains - human and animal [five] . Such mutations occur very often, however, the appearance of the influenza's type for people becomes dangerous not always. The new strain H1N1 has become dangerous for both pigs and human individuals (more than 200 thousand people around the world have become victims of the pandemic) [6] .

The incubation period of swine flu lasts from 1 to 4 days, this time from the moment of the virus entering the body before the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. The high contact activity of the virus is preserved for 7 days, however, in the next 7 days, each sixth carrier of infection also remains contagious, even if the visible manifestations of influenza passed, and the treatment has given a visible effect.

Such contagiousness of swine flu and, as a result, its ability to create pandemics is explained by two ways to transfer this disease:

  • Air-drip or aerogenic path implies the spread of the disease together with the smallest particles of saliva or mucus when coughing and sneezing at a distance of up to 3 meters;
  • The contact-household path implies that from a sick person can be infected through dishes, household items in a non-aggressive environment in which swine flu is able to survive and outside the human body over several hours.

Absolutely all categories of people have susceptibility to a swine flu, however, it is most dangerous for children under 5 years of age, people after 65 years of age, pregnant women on any time, in the state of immunodeficiency, as well as in the presence of chronic diseases in the respiratory tract, cardiovascular - seeking system, endocrine region (for example, with diabetes), liver or kidney.

In these patient categories, the immune response in the body is reduced, and in addition, the virus is capable of:

  • change the rheological properties of blood, increasing the possibility of thrombosis;
  • complicate viral pneumonia leading to the lung tissues;
  • Complete jade, with manifestation of renal failure, myocarditis.

Hong Kong fluThe speed of the development of swine flu in the body, especially weakened by any above-mentioned problems, leads to the fact that complications arise lightning and difficult to amenable to therapeutic measures.

Hong Kong flu

The most dangerous types of influenza influenza and specialists include Hong Kong flu, which was previously considered dangerous exclusively for the feathery [7] . After mutation in 1968, Hong Kong flu has become dangerous for a person when his outbreak was first recorded in Hong Kong and claimed more than half a million people on the planet [8] .

The latest mutations of Hong Kong flu were observed in 2014, and already in 2017 doctors concluded that this virus became the most common in the world, since in 75% of the incidence of influenza on the planet, the doctors were identified by this strain.

In the incidence of Hong Kong flu zone, first of all, children who, due to age, do not have a sufficiently developed immune system and have not come across this virus. However, even those adults, which at the end of the 60s have surpassed this virus, are not safe, because due to its mutations of immunity to Hong Kong flu, there is practically no anyone. Finding into the human body through the nasopharynx, the virus spreads from the top to the lower respiratory tract, which demonstrates the entire picture of complications during it - the bronchopulating pathologies of various nature.

Yamagat influenza

Yamagat flu was known throughout Europe until 1988, when his epidemic was raised annually. Then, this influenza type in was conditionally divided into two lines - Victorian and Yamagat. The Victorian virus on the expanses of Eastern Europe after 2000 was often painful, but the Yamagat Flu line began to threaten only the last year. The World Health Organization was not ready for the emergence of such a strain and did not include antibodies to it in vaccines that are proposed to be used to prevent influenza. In subsequent seasons, experts promise more weigly approach the inclusion of various types of antigens in the vaccine so that Yamagat influenza is the cause of the appearance.

Bird flu

Bird fluH5N1 influenza virus strain is an acute bird disease that can affect their respiratory and digestive system, leading to frequent fatal outcomes. The bird flu is especially dangerous for the reasons that such strains have high virulence indicators, that is, the ability to transmit from individuals to individuals, and variability, that is, mutation.

For the first time, the H5N1 influenza was spoken in 1878, ranked at the time to the chicken typhus and chicken plague. After scientists have identified the viral nature of this disease and attributed it to the influenza, the disease began to call the influenza of birds, and then the bird flu. Today, the bird flu virus is understood as Influenza Virus A from the Orthomyxoviridae family with a characteristic set of antigens. Variations of hemagglutinin avian influenza There are 16 (this is the letter H in the abbreviation H5N1), and neuraminidases (letter N) - 9, which leads to 144 variations of modern bird flu. Modern medicine has so far faced with 86 variations, among which strains with H5 and H7 are the most severe for birds. [nine] .

In the external environment, bird flu is quite unstable, even with a small concentration of disinfectants, it dies, but it is perfectly stored in a cold medium. In the wild, the virus persists in the organisms of migratory birds, which have resistance to it, it also applies to a poultry from them, which is instantly ill and most often dies.

According to the forecast of the World Health Organization, the most anticipated and dangerous epidemiological plan can be such a combination of avian influenza, as H5N1, which is a high-voluminous strain entering the human body with a direct contact with an infected bird. For the first time, the bird influenza struck people in Hong Kong in 1997, with the victims of more than 60% of the fallen victims.

Today, avian influenza is common in Asian countries in the south-east of the planet. The percentage ratio of the influenza and ill bird flu is very different in the direction of the prevalence of ordinary flu. However, scientists do not exclude the fact that the virus can mutate and begin to be transmitted to a person not only from sick birds, but also from infected people.

In this case, the epidemic will be very difficult to prevent.

Chinese virus

The variety of bird flu is H7N9 today is distributed only in China, but American scientists do not exclude the emergence of the epidemic of this strain everywhere outside of this country [ten] . Such conclusions were made on the basis of the fact that the experiments conducted on ferrets to spread among them the H7N9 influenza showed that among the human population this virus will be actively transmitted. Due to the strongest mutations of Chinese flu, the disease is quite pathogenic, exhibits considerable resistance to traditional anti-violence therapy. According to the experiments carried out over the samples of the virus, taken in the body of a deceased Chinese man, it became clear that only a small part of them was amented to treating antiviral drugs. The problem is that today it is difficult to determine the intensity of distribution of Chinese flu in the rest of the world. Modern studies testify to a weak transmission scheme of such viruses from a person to a person, but mutational processes are capable of significantly strengthening such a scheme.

Influenza Michigan.

VaccineA new type of pork influenza H1N1 today is considered to be influenza Michigan. Earlier, such a strain has already met among the population of the planet, however, it has never reached large-scale surgery, but scientists believe that they are possible in the very near future.

In recent years, experts have included in flu vaccines. Fragments of the protein of this strain of the virus and strongly recommend the population to make such vaccinations every year on the eve of a serious epidemiologically unstable season in order to prevent the occurrence of a pandemic. In addition to complications that are not always easily treated and pass without a trace, numerous cases of morbidity with a new strain of influenza lead to the continuation of the mutation processes of the virus and its further reincarnation and distribution even among those already overcome.

Ways of infection of the disease

Influenz viruses can demonstrate excellent resistance to adverse environmental conditions, and at low temperatures they are able to persist up to several months. However, in room conditions, the virus also can not long survive: a couple of hours outside the human (or other living) organism, it may well bear. Sensitive flu to boiling, high temperatures, dryness, chemicals, ultraviolet, ozone.

The carrier-tank for influenza is the sick man organism. At the end of the incubation period and until the seventh day of the disease, the concentration of influenza in exhaled air and saliva in the patient is extremely high, then it decreases sharply, however, after that, another week of the patient can be infected.

The danger is erased atypical forms of the disease, when symptomatics in the patient is poorly expressed, and the concentration of the virus in the body is quite high. To infect such a patient can be much more intense than with the usual course of the disease, since the patient will not guess that he is seriously ill. The advantage is that the chronic form of the influenza virus never goes.

The most frequent path of spreading infection is air-drip. In the process of breathing, conversation, cough, sneezing patient throws a huge number of viral cells into the air, which in the outdoor can be perfectly maintained for several minutes and reach another human body at a distance of up to 3 meters. Sometimes the flu is transmitted and through household items: dishes, towels and other items that first used the sick, and then they hit their hands to a healthy person. As soon as the virus enters the mucous region, it actively begins to divide and multiply throughout the body until the immune system generates antibodies to this type of virus.

The incubation period of influenza depends on several factors, such as strain, the number of virus particles that have fallen into the body, the stability of the immunity of the disease and others and varies from 1 to 4 days. At the same time, the infected person is not just a carrier of the resulting infection, but also its active distributor. The situation is especially difficult if the incubation period is delayed, since in the first 48 hours after infection, the sick most actively spreads the pathogen among others.

Clinic of the disease and its symptoms

CoughFlows flu is very diverse, which depends on the set of factors [eleven] . In easy cases, many symptoms resemble cold symptoms. Typical influenza in adults is characterized by a sudden sharp start.

Among the main most frequent symptoms of the disease, specialists are called:

  • increasing body temperature;
  • the occurrence of cough;
  • strong headaches;
  • muscle pain;
  • a sore throat;
  • eye stress and soreness;
  • the emergence of rhinitis;
  • pronounced weakness;
  • Failures in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Among all the above-mentioned symptoms, only high temperature differs in constancy, the rest of the symptoms may occur far from every case. At the same time, the body temperature near the diseased grows very quickly, literally in a matter of hours, it can overcome the mark of 39 degrees, sometimes reaching and 40. Such temperatures are an expression of intoxication processes and the reaction of the human body's immune response. Also, a characteristic feature of the influenza is to reduce the temperature under the influence of antipyretic drugs only for a while, which is repeatedly increasing the temperature.

This picture usually holds from 2 to 4 days with flu, then the temperature becomes subfebrile.

The main defeat of the virus is the mucous membrane of the trachea with the formation of a viral tracheite, so the cough is a frequent symptom of this disease. The characteristic feature of the influenza cough is its obsession and dryness, because of which the patient cannot fall asleep. There is no cough immediately, at first it does not differ in productivity.

Muscular, headaches and lobs in the body indicate active intoxication of the body arising from all the manifestations of the disease. Right in the eyes and lights can also meet with flu. Various catarrhal powers of the mucosa in the upper respiratory tract can be expressed in a cold, soreness of the throat, and maybe completely absent. As a rule, if such phenomena appear after 2-3 days after the start of the disease, this indicates a secondary bacterial infection. In childhood, such phenomena occur much more often.

Intestinal disorderSometimes the flu may accompany and uncharacteristic symptoms for it - disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, for example. High temperature is able to lead to sweating, healing of heartbeat, hyperemia of the skin, an increase in blood pressure.

At the active phase, lasting 3-5 days, all the symptoms of the disease are very bright. After that, the symptomtics begins to weaken noticeably, the catarrhal symptoms are completely, leaving after themselves only pronounced weakness, which may not leave the patient until 14 days. The temperature after 10 days should fully independently normal. If, on 3-5 days, new symptoms are added to the clinical picture, this indicates the occurrence of complications and the attachment of a bacterial infection, which must be treated with antibacterial drugs.

Forms and stages of disease

The disease begins with the incubation period. For the influenza virus type and it is usually 24-48 hours, and for the type B - up to 4 days. The first thing that feels sick is a sharp rise in body temperature to 39-40 degrees. In this case, chills and weakness occurs sharply, pain in the joints and muscles, headaches arise. At the end of the first day (occasionally on the second), the temperature rises to critical of the maximum indicators. By this time, other symptoms of the disease are actively manifested, which in each case can be different. More pronounced in adults, as a rule, are the following clinical symptoms - dizziness, malaise, nausea, loss of appetite, interruptions with sleep. Children are actively manifested by catarrhal signs - rhinitis, unproductive cough, soreness in the throat and nasal sinuses. Sometimes patients from different ages may have loss of consciousness, nasal bleeding, meningeal symptoms. With light and middle forms of the disease, such symptoms are actively disturbed by patients up to 3-5 days, and then gradually go to no. With more severe flu forms, this symptomatology remains pronounced after 5 days of the disease, in addition, new symptoms may be added to it, which often indicate the occurrence of bacterial complications. One of the common specific influenza manifestations is the segmental swelling of the lungs, which is manifested with medium-heavy forms of the disease. In the most difficult case, it is transformed into hemorrhagic pneumonia.

Pets flows very sharply. Fevering five-day stage strongly depletes the body. When it ends, the body temperature sharply decreases first to subfebrile, and then to normal marks. About 70% of patients after 7 days of illness cease to allocate a high concentration of the virus to the environment and become potentially safe for others, however, 30% of people can persist up to 2 weeks.

If, after stabilizing the temperature, the temperature began to grow again without the use of antipyretic drugs, it acts as evidenced by the emergence of complications to which it is necessary to pay attention and seek medical attention.

    Vaccination.jpg.After 2-3 weeks after the influenza, the patient may still feel the increased fatigue and weakness in the muscles, which acts as an example of asthenic syndrome after the suffered severe infection.

The light and secondary gravity of the shape of the flu is permissible to treat homes on their own, but more severe cases are better to entrust specialists in the clinic, especially if a history has cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In this case, the risk of severe complications, which, for the most part, is the cause of frequent fatal outcomes with influenza.

Influenza is a very unwanted infection for pregnant women on any child to wear, since it serves as a frequent cause of miscarriage and fraught with intrauterine fetal infection. If a nursing mother gets like a virus, then the question of overcoming the child from the chest should be solved, based on how quickly the mother manifested itself and whether the child managed to visit her during the incubation period in contact. Since it is often impossible to find out if it is impossible to find it, the specialists are not advised to overcome the baby from the chest, since it is also infected with a high probability, and only with maternal milk will be able to get the antibodies they need to recover. If it is possible to assume that the baby did not contact the sick mother, it can become a method for its protection against severe infection.

Consequences of the disease

As already noted, a large percentage of influenza mortality binds not to the infection itself, but with its subsequent complications. Complications from cardiovascular or nervous systems, kidneys or lungs - not uncommon in this case.

The most dangerous influenza complications that are found very often, this is:

  • Viral pneumonia, to treat which is very hard even in stationary medical conditions;
  • myocarditis and pericarditis, that is, inflammatory processes in the heart muscle and bag;
  • meningitis and encephalitis;
  • liver and renal failure;
  • Loss or infection of the fetus during pregnancy on any time.

In addition to the above, there are other complications that may arise during the layering of the bacterial flora on the viral in parallel with the total symptomatic of influenza at the first acute stages of the disease, which complicates the process of identifying complications and leads to gravity of their flow. To such complications, experts include purulent and catarrhal otitis, sinusites, laryngotracheobronchites, focal pneumonia.

МенингитDifficult complications in small children proceed. If bacterial pneumonia is attached to the virus, the patient's condition becomes often critical, well-being deteriorated significantly. All this, as a rule, occurs during the period of acute stage, leading to increasing inxication syndrome, to the strongest increase in body temperature, strengthening shortness of breath and deepening cough.

The most complex neurological complications of influenza include meningoencephalitis, meningitis, neuralgia, neuritis and other pathologies, which, with untimely therapy, very often entail a fatal outcome.

Diagnosis of disease

If doctors diagnose flu during the epidemiological activity of the virus, the diagnosis is most often carried out on the basis of existing data on the epidemic and clinical picture. [12] . If a specialist has doubts about whether the patient is sick with flu or ARS, the doctor studies the order of intoxication and catarrhal symptoms in the context of differential diagnosis. In the championship of the catarrhal, in most cases, the patient suffers from ARZ, and with intoxicial primary manifestations - the flu. Also about the influenza, the symptoms of tracheobronchitis, hemorrhagic syndrome and the initial stages of pneumonia speak.

To diagnose influenza in the season, when there are no epidemics of this virus, specialists are resorting exclusively to laboratory research methods:

  • immunoluminescent technique for detecting flu antigens in strokes of the nasophack mucosa (carried out in the first 2 days after the start of the disease);
  • a retrospective of the reaction of the binding of the complement and the braking reaction of hemagglutination in the patient's serum (carried out in the active stage of the influenza and after 3-4 weeks after it starts);
  • Reef diagnostics to detect antigens;
  • PCR diagnostics for detecting RNA viruses in the patient's biological fluid (urine analysis);
  • Auxiliary virological diagnostics.

It is necessary to distinguish the beginning of the influenza disease from other flu-like severe diseases, whose manifestations in the early stages coincide. For example, the flu must be differentiated in relation to the emergence of infectious mononucleosis, a rapid typhoid, leptospirosis. If the patient differentiates the flu, but at the same time the initial signs of pneumonia are revealed, it must be sent to a pulmonologist for consultation and for remote radiography.

Treatment of the disease

Употребление воды

Influenza, unlike other ORVI, must be treated with antiviral and symptomatic drugs

[thirteen] [14]

. Also for symptomatic treatment can be approached and folk remedies. It is only important to measure soberly, at what stage there is a specific disease and whether it is not complicated by a bacterial infection, for the treatment of which antibacterial drugs are used.

Uncomplicated flu forms are treated outpatient. The main criterion of the speedy recovery and lack of development of pathologies will be a strict bed regime of the patient. The diet should be easily dismantled, with an increase in the amount of fluid consumed due to severe dehydration of the body while increasing the temperature.

Effective antiviral tools help at the very first symptoms of influenza block the reproduction of virus cells in the human body, as well as enhance the development of an immune response, which facilitates the course of the disease [15] . In addition, antiviral agents are well compatible with antibiotics and symptomatic means to reduce influenza manifestations. They prevent and prevent the occurrence of complications. Two groups of drugs include antiviral and anti-influenza, neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and Adamantans (Amantadine and Rimantadine) [16] .

Additionally to antiviral, you can use immunomodulatory products, for example, Dibazole preparation, which also contributes to the early developing in the body of an immune response to the virus.

In parallel with antiviral drugs, it is imperative to receive antipyretic agents that reduce the risk of cramps and shock. The best preparation in this case will be paracetamol or the means of combined composition based on it.

If the patient's influenza is tormented by a dry bugle cough, then symptomatic means can be recommended to reduce cough - Omnitus, Codelak-neo. With a cough with a viscous, difficult wetting, the drugs of a musolitic action are shown - Lazolyvan, acetylcysteine.

The throat challenge can be overcome using non-mental lollipops and eucalyptus-based resorption tablets. Dry in the nasopharynx can be eliminated by intranasal vegetable drops with oils or moisturize sprays with sea water. Often, when treating influenza, it is recommended to use antihistamines that reduce the manifestations of various reactions in the body to the virus. It is also very important to maintain an immune system during the period of the disease by taking complex vitamin preparations that enhance the protective functions of the body. All medicines are accepted in the mid-therapeutic dosages according to the age of the patient who can only adjust the doctor depending on the state of the patient.

Prevention of morbidity

КарантинPreventive antigrippose procedures are reduced to several basic actions. [17] [18] . First, if surrounded there is already an infected person, it is necessary to isolate it from the rest of the team at least a week. Such patients need to be observed by a doctor at home to save them from the need to attend medical institutions and distribute infection there. If you need to move around the city, patients must use gauze masks to eliminate the infection of others. Also masks need to use both at home so as not to infect other family members.

If there is a risk of flu epidemic due to a large number of morbidity within a single collective, resort to such a concept as a quarantine, that is, the separation of healthy people for a period of up to 2 weeks until the situation with the incidence is stabilized.

The specific measures for the prevention of influenza include vaccination, which is customary to carry out at least a month before the alleged start of the epidemic so that the body has managed to develop antibodies [19] . The protective titer of antibodies is fully considered formed after 14 days from the date of vaccination. It is especially important to take vaccination to persons under the age of 14 and reached 65, patients with chronic cardiovascular pathologies, pulmonary diseases, metabolic syndrome, doctors, who, by the nature of the activity, will actively communicate with sick. It is also important to vaccinate in a timely manner when planning pregnancy, since the flu can very negatively affect the process of nourishing the child and childbirth.

Non-specific means of influenza prevention and reception of various pharmacological agents such as polyvitamins and immunomodulators are also related. However, such funds are not drugs with proven effectiveness in matters of preventing incidence. Such drugs will rather help transfer flu easily and without complications, since they will strengthen the immune system and will help it more actively fight the viruses. A similar, but even easier operation, and folk prevention tools may have. Drinking the tincture of Echinacea and ginger is useful for the immune system, but they are unlikely to help avoid the body's reaction to the influenza virus.

Tips for influenza

If a person fell ill with influenza, the main rule of his behavior should be a hard bed regime and limiting any physical stress and contacts [twenty] . A weakened organism is not able to resist other bacteria, cold air and other domestic everyday "difficulties", for which people in normal state even pay attention. Therefore, without compliance with the bed mode, it is easy to get complications even at home. The restriction of communication is necessary both by the people around the patient with the aim of preventing the spread of the disease and the patient in order to prevent other bacteria in the weakened organism.

Also, for the illness should be ensured by protective regime in terms of light and sharp sounds, since the intrication of the body can lead to tear, light-in-friendly and other annoying factors.

Regarding easily friendly food, which was mentioned above, it should be added that in the medical circles it is called "Table No. 13" in the influenza. Any diet is necessarily complemented by an abundant fractional drink of honey or herbal tea, lime-colored decoctions or rosehip, compotes, juices, horses and other drinks.

The people there is a stereotype that at the beginning of the flu you need to drink vodka in a timely manner to "kill" in yourself the disease. Medical science with this categorically disagrees and assures that drinking alcohol with flu is not only not useful, but also harmful. With frequent and abundant use of alcohol, intoxication can be used, which weakened organism can absolutely do not take place. The use of alcohol can cause uncharacteristic complications that will have to be treated in parallel with the main disease.

Due to the fact that the flu has a viral basis, during the disease, numerous toxic substances are actively displayed on the surface of the human body. A large number of toxins enhances intoxication processes, so all human excretory systems operate in this case in reinforced mode. Leather, for example, removes toxins by means of sweating. Accumulating on the surface of the skin, the toxins of the skin with the skin sebum are clogged and worsen the patient's condition. Therefore, swimming during the flu is very necessary to accelerate the removal of toxins and the faster recovery. Exchange processes with bath procedures are accelerated, muscle tone is activated, well-being improved. However, it is necessary to wash in such a way that at the end of the bath procedures there is no supercooling of the body, and if the body temperature is too high, it will be enough to regularly wipe with a wet towel instead of receiving a soul.

If the woman fell ill with the flu at the moment when she feeds baby breasts, it is not a reason to stop breastfeeding in the event that it has in contact with the child during the incubation period. The opinions of specialists in this issue were divided. Many doctors believe that feeding should not be stopped under any circumstances, since the baby instantly get antibodies to infection from breast milk to help him not get sick or rather recover. In any case, in each case, it will be better to obtain a consultation of a specialist who will help choose the right model of behavior with breastfeeding, but it is important to understand that it is not necessary to stop it.

The flu, like any viral disease, occurs sharply until immunity begins the production of antibodies to this virus in sufficient quantity. Therefore, the best prevention of any diseases will be the strengthening of immunity by vitamins, sports and the right way of life.

Sources

Article author:

Medvedev Larisa Anatolyevna

Specialty: Therapist, nephrologist .

Common experience: 18 years .

Place of work: Novorossiysk, Nephro Medical Center .

Education: 1994-2000 Stavropol State Medical Academy .

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Publication date January 15, 2018. Updated December 11, 2020.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Influenza (grippus influenza) - acute infectious disease caused by various influenza virus serotypes that affect predominantly trachea epithelial cells. It is characterized by a pronounced syndrome of general infectious intoxication, tracheite and in some cases hemorrhagic manifestations, inclined to take the epidemic nature of the flow. The epidemic may have a negative impact on the economy due to labor resource performance loss and create an excessive load for health services.

Etiology

The influenza virus refers to the kingdom of viruses, the lifting of RNA-containing viruses and the Orthomyxoviridae family. Includes several clans: A (human individual, birds, mammals), in (person), C (man).

The first description of the manifestations of the influenza was made in 1403 by French Etienne Paskie. The type A virus was opened in 1933 by scientists Smith and Lendou.

Структура вируса гриппа

Which influenza pathogens cause epidemics

There are four types of seasonal flu viruses: A, B, C and D. Seasonal epidemics cause influenza viruses A and B [12] .

Antigens of influenza virus

The inhomogeneity of the virus is due to the variability of internal and surface antigens. Internal antigens (cores - S) are RNA virus + protein. They are typical, i.e., on their basis, there is a classification of viruses on serotypes (A, B, C). Surface antigens (glycoprotein - v) include Emagglutinin (H), which is responsible for the penetration of the virus into a cell (binding to a specific receptor) and neuraminidase (N), which is responsible for the yield of viral particles from the affected cell. In addition, the virus contains 7 major proteins responsible for virus activity (M1, M2, NS1, NS2, RV1, RV2, NP) [one] .

Epidemiology

Withd at least 900 million people, the flu is ill with influenza, of which $ 3-5 million develops a heavy form. Up to 650 thousand people die from influenza [12] . The flu occasionally arises around the world, anyone of any age can get sick. The source of the infectious start is a sick person with clinically explicit and atypical (implicit) styles of the disease. The greatest contagious is noted during the first three days from the start of clinical manifestations.

How long is the flu

The release of the pathogen and the duration of the disease in the uncomplicated form is 6-7 days (the rapid formation of immunity and the elimination of the virus), with a heavy and complicated form - up to three weeks. At the same time, the slow formation of immunity is characterized, including due to the possible initial weakening of protective mechanisms (associated diseases, age).

Main paths of infection

The transmission mechanism of the air-droplege (aerosol path) is possible (when using common dishes, kisses, contaminated hands). It is sufficiently characteristic of autumn-winter seasonality with an epidemic component repeating from about the same interval. Sporadic (random) morbidity is observed at any time of the year. It is noteworthy that debut of the global epidemic outbreak, as a rule, geographically accounted for countries of East Asia, which partly explains the year-round sporadic morbidity in these regions, special climatic conditions favorable to maintain circulation and virus modification [one] [2] [five] .

Распространение вируса гриппа

What are the risk factors

Factors increasing the likelihood of influenza disease:

  • Purpose of the population;
  • cold season;
  • Neglecting preventive measures.

Increased risk of severe flu flow and the development of complications are subject to:

  • people over 65;
  • children under 2 years old;
  • pregnant;
  • HIV-infected in the AIDS stage;
  • Patients with bronchial asthma;
  • Patients with serious diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • patients with diabetes;
  • Patients with a serious limitation of mobility;
  • cancer patients;
  • Patients with severe kidney diseases.

How to distinguish flu freaks

Since the cold and flu has a lot of common symptoms, it is difficult (or even impossible) to distinguish them, based only on symptoms. It is reliably determined whether the person is sick with the flu, special tests will help. In general, the cold proceeds more easily than the flu, and, as a rule, does not lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia. In patients with cold, more often than in patients with flu, runny nose and nasal congestion [thirteen] .

warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms of influenza

The incubation period lasts from 12 to 48 hours (rarely up to three days).

How usually the flu begins

The initial start is always acute (acute). Suddenly, chills appear, the increase in the body temperature with a maximum to the end of the first day to 40. It is characterized by an increasing wave fever, a substantial universal weakness, a breaking, strengthening of sweating, sleep disorders (insomnia), lowering appetite. It is clearly specific painfulness in the eyes appearing when the eye and pressing, light-wide. There is a headache with localization in the forehead, periorubital areas, discomfort in the muscles. Perhaps the sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, witnessing voice.

Symptoms of influenza

When the symptoms of influenza appear on the side of the respiratory organs

By the end of the first day (i.e., already on the background of bright general infective intoxication symptoms), a dry cough appears with increasing intensity. The cough is characterized by perseverance, painful flowing with chasing and pains for sternum in various intensity. In the continuation of several days, the cough moves from dry into the wet, begins to move the sputum, the formation of viral-bacterial pneumonia can occur. Objectively attracts attention to redness of the face and neck, the injection of the spool vessels (redness of the eye proteins), a shiny cornea of ​​the eyes, reinforced sweating.

The state of consciousness correlates with the severity and severity of the pathological process. Often there is an aggravation of the labial herpes (herpes on the lips). The number of respiratory movements increases, sometimes there is relative bradycardia (inconsistency of the pulse rate of the temperature curve). Peripheral lymph nodes do not increase. With auscultation (listening) heard hard breathing, periodically dry whistling wheels. When viewing the o'clock, there is a reasonable redness of the mucous membranes, the injection of blood vessels, visualizes the sign of Morozkin - the graininess on the mucous coverings of the soft noise and the rear wall of the pharynx (inflamed lymphatic follicles) [3] [6] .

When the patient's condition should cause serious concern

A separate mention deserve new, more aggressive types of influenza infection (bird, swine flu) in which violations of digestion organs, formidable specific influenza pneumonia can join the above-described defeats (has a very characteristic picture on an X-ray in the form of "beesh cell"). In addition, the so-called "cytokine storm" may develop, which is a predictor of complications.

Legal criteria for the diagnosis of influenza in the Russian Federation:

  1. Acute (acute) beginning.
  2. A large-scale syndrome of general infectious intoxication (arises before the symptoms of the respiratory tract and is more presented in the totality of symptoms).
  3. Among the symptoms of respiratory disorders, the predominance of tracheite symptoms.
  4. Epidemiological prerequisites (epidemic zone).
  5. Confirmed serology (Most significant factor in modern conditions).

Influenza symptoms in children

In young children, the symptoms of general infectious intoxication are rapidly growing at the flu: lethargy, rejection of food, nausea and vomiting at the peak of fever, general weakness, sleep disorders. For older children's age, a tendency to dizziness and the development of a fainted state is characterized. Among children, the phenomenon of meningism is quite common - the symptoms of meningitis without inflammation of the brain shells. In children with influenza, centralization of blood circulation and a disturbance of peripheral blood flow (spasm of vessels) can occur - there is tachycardia, arterial hypertension, skin pallor.

Unlike influenza in adults, catarrhal phenomena (cough) are 1-2 days old and manifest themselves more poorly, it is often developing laryngitis (witnessing voice), in general complications in children develop more often.

Pathogenesis of influenza

The entrance paths for the pathogen's pathogen is the mucous lining of the upper respiratory tract. The leading links of the development of the disease are epithelotropic and poisoning properties of the influenza virus, allergyizing the immune system, immunosuppressive impact.

Mechanism of the development of influenza

The primary reproduction of the pathogen occurs in the cells of the filler epithelium of the airway paths (glass-like trachea cells). There is damage to the metabolism and the integrity of the cell membrane, followed by the death and introduction of viral particles into systemic blood flow. Meanwhile, at the place of inflammation there is an increase in metabolic agents of inflammation, the activation of congenital immunity: hyperthermia (overheating) as a response to inflammation, enhancing interferon production, etc.

The massive intake of viral particles, the products of decay of cellular structures and mediators of inflammation into the blood causes massive toxic-allergic processes, weanly accompanied by damage to the endothelium of blood vessels and microcirculation disorders. The lack of oxygen in the blood and tissues (hypoxemia and hypoxia) increases, the hemorrhagic imbalance of varying degrees of severity is developing.

Как вирус проникает в клетку

When decompensating the functional adaptation mechanisms, the progress of the brain edema, sharp cardiovascular and renal failure, DVS syndrome, is revealed. By virtue of the inhibition of immunological reactivity and blood formation, the layering of secondary bacterial flora occurs, complications, pneumonia develop.

Depending on the holding (or absence) of therapeutic measures, individual characteristics are natural for the disease, the inverse dynamics of the pathological process (recovery) or death is

Classification and stages of flu development [four] [five] .

By clinical form:

Typical.

  1. Atypical:
  2. Africral (the presence of symptoms of damage to the respiratory tract in the absence or minimum increase in body temperature);
  3. Akatralny (lack of signs of damage to the respiratory tract in the presence of intoxication component of the disease);
  4. Lightning (sharply pronounced and fast increasing inxication complex, specific hemorrhagic toxic edema, acute cardiovascular insufficiency, acute respiratory failure. Most often ends with death.
  5. With the flow:

uncomplicated;

  • complicated;
  • By severity:

light shape of influenza;

  • middle shape;
  • severe (toxic) form;
  • extremely heavy (hypertoxic) form
  • The algorithm for determining the severity of influenza is shown in the table. [eleven] .

Body temperature

up to 38 ° C 38.1-40 ° C. 40 ° C. Over 40 ° C Symptoms of defeat
respiratory tract Rino Faringo-Laryngo-tracheobronchitis Syndrome of general infectious intoxication
Implicit Obvious Seriously indications Responsets + complications Power
Light Medium heavy Heavy Extremely heavy Complications of influenza

Specific influenza-hemorrhagic pneumonia (acute hemorgic eaters, accompanied by the fluctuations in respiratory failure of the maximum extent).

  • Pneumonia (inflammation of lungs). It may be suspected with a fever for more than 5 days, the absence of positive dynamics, cough with the separation of mucous-purulent and blood wet, wet wheezing and attitudes when listening, the appearance of neutrophilic leukocytosis, increasing the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells (EE).
  • LOR-Pathology (sinusitis, otitis).
Воспаление лёгких
  • Renal pathology (exacerbations of pyelonephritis, cystitis).
  • Cholangitis (
  • Inflammation of grained ducts) The escalation of the false cereal in children (shortness of breath, difficulty inhalation, cyanosis of the face); .
  • Serous Meningitis, Meningoencephalitis
  • What is dangerous flu during pregnancy [four] [7] .

The flu is usually heavier in pregnant women than that of non-remote women of reproductive age. Pneumonia develops, complications from the ENT organs, premature labor is possible. The negative effect of high temperature with influenza on the development of the nervous tube of the fetus is noted.

Diagnosis of influenza

When should you consult a doctor

There is a shortness of breath, breathing is difficult;

  • There was pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen;
  • The patient is in the risk group (
  • Children of the first year of life, pregnant and elderly, patients with chronic diseases ). Preparation for visiting a doctor

To visit the doctor with influenza, special preparation is not required.

Diagnostics

Deployed clinical blood test

  • : leukopenia ( Reduced the number of leukocytes) , normocytosis (normal erythrocyte size) or neutropenia ( Reducing the number of neutrophils) , lymphocytosis ( An increase in the number of lymphocyte ); General urinary analysis
  • (Changes are usually short-lived and insignificant, indicate the degree of intoxication). Serological reactions
  • . Complete binding response (RSK) and hemagglutination braking response (RTHA) have a retrospective value. Immunochromatographic analysis ( Yh) and the method of fluorescent antibodies (MFA) are aimed at searching for virus antigens for 3 hours, but they have unacceptable sensitivity and specificity, the lack of uniform standards of implementation and interpretation. When conducting IH, part of the results gives a false positive criterion in the absence of epidemic lifting and false-negative - during its exceeding. In addition, these tests are described by a reduced sensitivity to the "pork" flu (no more than 60%). Concerning Center for the Control and Prevention of Diseases in the United States ( CDC) for high-quality diagnostics of new influenza serotypes A installed to search for a RNA virus to use the polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) Physic treatment [one] [2] [6] .

The choice of place where the patient will undergo treatment depends on the nature of the flow and severity of clinical manifestations of the disease. Light forms can remain unrecognized, especially in the district-epidemic period. In such cases, patients may be left at home.

People with medium-stage and heavy forms of influenza (signs are shown in the section with symptoms), especially the children of the first year of life, pregnant and older people who have a combination of diseases should be hospitalized into an infectious hospital or a general hospital in the presence of infectious offices.

Treatment aimed at combating the virus

Etiotropic therapy

(The impact on the pathogen) is shown by all patients with influenza infection, regardless of the severity of the disease. The effectiveness of medicines directly depends on the time of the start of therapy relative to the beginning of the development of the disease. The most effective will be therapy, begun in the first 48 hours (in the early stages of viral replication and its inhums). Next occurs a preventive decrease in the effectiveness of drugs (the concentration of the virus increases according to the exponent and the drug simply does not have time to produce localization). Antiviral drugs

From the most significant modern means it is worth noting neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir, Zanamivir, as well as peramivir and launinavir, which are not registered in our country. Recently, there are cases of resistance (sustainability) influenza viruses to oseltamivir, so Zanamivir acquires the greatest recommendation value. In addition, the market is represented by the class of M2-channel blockers (Amantadine and Rimantadine), which often contains virus resistance, which makes it difficult to use the use

General treatment. Treatment aimed at eliminating the mechanisms and symptoms of the disease [one] [five] .

Pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy

It is carried out according to general testimony and includes disinfective measures, combating hyperthermia, dehydration, restoring the function of the respiratory system, maintaining the functioning of the cardiovascular system, etc. In the event of complications and urgent states, a complex of intensive measures to combat pathology of the corresponding profile is carried out.

Flu treatment in pregnant women

In the treatment of pregnant women, the same methods are used as for non-reflected contraindications. At high body temperature, paracetomol is prescribed. The drug selection of antiviral therapy, appointed as early as possible, is oseltamivir.

Influenza treatment in children

CDC (US Disease Control and Prevention Centers) For the treatment of children from influenza, recommended:

Oseltamivir

  • ("Tamiflu") approved for the treatment of influenza in children aged two weeks and older. Osseltamivir for oral administration is produced in the form of tablets and liquid. Zanyvir
  • ("Relay") approved for treating flu in children from seven years. It is not recommended to use children with concomitant respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic lung diseases. Zanamivir inhale through a special inhaler. Peramivir
  • ("Rapivab") is introduced intravenously and recommended for children from two years. Balkavir
  • ("Hofluza") - a tablet that is assigned once inside. The drug is approved for early outpatient treatment of children from influenza aged 12 years Home Treatments [15] .

Measures that facilitate flu symptoms:

drink more liquid - warm boiled water, juice, tea, soups to prevent dehydration;

  • Sleep more to help the immune system to deal with infection
  • Patients are shown the appointment of the table No. 15 according to the pessner (diverse healthy food). [14] .

Myths and dangerous misconceptions

Combined myth: flu can be cured with antibiotics. Antibiotics, or antibacterial drugs, are useless in the fight against viral infection.

Forecast. Prevention

In the absence of complications, timely and proper treatment

forecast For life with influenza favorable. In the case of complicated flow and in the absence of therapy, a fatal outcome is possible. Specific prophylaxis. Vaccines against influenza

The main effective, scientifically substantiated way of preventing the disease or its complications is vaccination. Due to the regular modification of the influenza virus, the global system of flu surveillance and WHO response measures (HSEG) conducts regular monitoring of flu viruses, circulating in the people community, and regularly instructs the necessary changes in the composition of anti-influenza vaccines.

Immunization is very important for persons from high-risk groups of serious complications, as well as for people living together with this category of persons or medical and social care for them.

Recommendations for vaccination

WHO recommends the annual scheduled vaccination of the following categories of the population:

pregnant women on any time in the absence of contraindications;

  • Little children from 6 months to 5 years, especially from organized teams;
  • elderly and elderly people;
  • Persons with chronic concomitant pathology;
  • Persons whose activities are associated with medicine.
  • The preventive vaccination against influenza in the Russian Federation is carried out for free to all categories of the population to prevent its development and weaken the epidemic lifting. For groups of certain ages, various types of vaccines are provided so that there are no unwanted reactions due to the presence of a virus particles in a lively or inactivated form. October is considered the optimal month when it is worth making a vaccination against influenza. By the end of December, immunity will reach the maximum level and can reflect the attack. A steady response is preserved half a year after the introduction of the vaccine, so vaccinations should be done every year.

Non-specific prophylaxis

not in contact with potentially sick people (coughing, sneezing, etc.);

  • Do not suit with no reasonable need to potentially infected with 1 meter closer;
  • When communicating with the pretty apply a medical gauze mask and change it at least 1 time in 4 hours;
  • more often wash hands and face with soap or antibacterial agents after communicating with people during the epidemic period;
  • cover with cough, sneezing, use nasal shawls;
  • carry out ultraviolet irradiation of the room;
  • Do not attend mass events (concerts, quizzes, catering establishments);
  • to ventilate the room daily;
  • Do not touch the area of ​​the face with dirty hands;
  • promote and stick to a healthy lifestyle (walks in the fresh air, physical education classes, full sleep, useful healthy food rich in vitamins, onion, garlic), which will help the body to resist pathogenic influences
  • Chemoprophylaxis [one] [2] [3] .
Неспецифическая профилактика гриппа

Chemotherapeutic agents (immunomodulators) for the prevention and treatment of influenza are not widely used in practice and are not recommended for use, since there are no direct evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs.

Some are sick of the flu for a few days, while others longer and with heavy complications. In total, there are three types of influenza viruses, which are characterized by infinite variability, while protecting themselves from influenza and its consequences - in the forces of each.

ГРИПП: симптомы и профилактика

What is flu and what is his danger?

Influenza is an infectious disease that any person can get sick. The influenza causative agent is a virus, which from infected people falls into the nasopherler of others.

Most people suffer from influenza just a few days, but some are seriously ill, perhaps a serious course of the disease, up to death.

With influenza, existing chronic diseases are exacerbated, in addition, the flu has an extensive list of possible complications:

Light complications (pneumonia, bronchitis). It is pneumonia that causes most fatal influenza.

Complications from the upper respiratory tract and LOR organs (otitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, tracheitis).

Complications from the cardiovascular system (myocarditis, pericarditis).

Complications from the nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, neuralgia, polyradiculoneuritis).

To avoid possible complications, it is important to carry out the prevention of influenza in a timely manner and correctly treat the disease itself.

Usually the flu begins suddenly. Flu pathogens, viruses of types of A and B, differ in aggressiveness and extremely high reproduction rate, so in a matter of hours after infection, the virus leads to deep lesions of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, opening the possibilities for penetrating bacteria.

Among the symptoms of influenza - heat, temperature 37.5-39 ° C, headache, pain in the muscles, joints, chills, fatigue, cough, runny nose or nose, pain and throat.

The flu can be confused with other diseases, so the doctor should put a clear diagnosis, he also appoints treatment tactics.

What to do with influenza disease?

At the very patient, at first symptoms, it is necessary to stay at home so that not only do not infect others, but also to take care of treatment in time, for which it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor. To prevent the further spread of infection of the disease, it is necessary to isolate from healthy individuals, it is desirable to highlight a separate room.

Important!

Parents! In no case do not send sick children to kindergarten, school, cultural events. In case of influenza, it is imperative to observe the bed mode, since the disease increases the load on cardiovascular, immune and other organism systems.

Self-medication for influenza is unacceptable, and it is the doctor who must diagnose and assign the necessary treatment corresponding to the patient's condition and age.

For proper treatment, it is necessary to strictly fulfill all the recommendations of the attending physician and take the medicine timely. In addition, abundant drinking is recommended - it can be hot tea, cranberry or brushing juice, alkaline mineral waters. You need to drink more often and as much as possible.

At a temperature of 38 - 39 ° C, call the precinct doctor to the house or the ambulance brigade.

Parents! In no case do not send sick children to kindergarten, school, cultural events. In case of influenza, it is imperative to observe the bed mode, since the disease increases the load on cardiovascular, immune and other organism systems.

When coughing and sneezing, the patient must cover the mouth and nose with a handkerchief or a napkin.

The room where the patient is located must be regularly ventured and the wet cleaning can be carried out as much as possible, it is desirable to use disinfectants acting on viruses.

Communication with sick flu should be limited, and when careing use a medical mask or gauze bandage.

How to protect yourself from influenza?

According to the position of the World Health Organization, the most effective means against influenza is vaccination, because it is vaccine that protects against those types of influenza virus, which are the most relevant in this epidemiological season and are included in its composition.

Introduction The vaccine cannot cause the disease, but by developing protective antibodies stimulates the immune system to combat infection. The effectiveness of flu vaccine is incomparably higher than all nonspecific drugs that can be taken over winter months, such as immunomodulators, vitamins, homeopathic remedies, "traditional medicine" and so on.

Vaccination is recommended to all groups of the population, but especially shown to children since 6 months, people suffering from chronic diseases, pregnant women, as well as persons from groups of professional risk - medical workers, teachers, students, service and transport workers.

Vaccination should be carried out 2-3 weeks before the increase in incidence of increasing, can be vaccinated only in a medical institution specially trained medical personnel, while the doctor's inspection is required before vaccination.

Contraindications for flu vaccinations are a bit. The vaccination against influenza cannot be made in acute feverish states, during the exacerbation of chronic diseases, with an increased sensitivity of the body to the egg protein (if it is included in the vaccine).

Having grafting the influenza, you protect your body from the attack of the most dangerous viruses - influenza viruses, but there are still more than 200 types of viruses that are less dangerous to humans, but may also be the cause of ORVI. Therefore, during the epidemic rise in the incidence of ORVI and influenza, it is recommended to take measures of non-specific prophylaxis.

Influenza prevention rules:

Make a vaccination against influenza before the early epidemic season.

Reduce the time of staying in places of mass clusters of people and public transport.

Use the mask in the places of the crowd of people.

Avoid close contacts with people who have signs of the disease, for example, sneeze or cough.

We regularly wash your hands with soap, especially after the street and public transport.

Rinse the nasal cavity, especially after the street and public transport

Regularly ventilate the room in which you are.

Regularly make wet cleaning in the room in which you are.

Moisturize the air in the room in which you are.

Eat as many products containing vitamin C (cranberry, lingonberry, lemon, etc.).

Eat as much dishes as possible with the addition of garlic and bow.

On the recommendation of the doctor, use drugs and funds that increase immunity.

In the event of the appearance of sick influenza in the family or the working team - begin the reception of antiviral drugs with a prophylactic goal (as agreed with the doctor, taking into account contraindications and according to the instructions for the use of the drug).

Watch a healthy lifestyle, pour out, are balanced and regularly engage in physical education.

Overview

Influenza is an acute viral respiratory tract infection transmitted mainly by air-droplet.

Do not confuse flu with other types of colds (ARS, ORVI), which are easier. Influenza symptoms usually manifest stronger and saved longer. You can get infected with flu at any time of the year, but the probability of infection in winter is especially high.

человек, больной респираторным заболеванием

The flu causes a sharp rise in temperature, headache and lobs in the body, fatigue and sore throat. There may also be a lack of appetite, nausea and cough. The flu may cause such a weakness that you have to observe the bed mode before facilitating the symptoms.

If you usually do not complain about health and are in good physical form, when symptoms, like influenza, as a rule, contact the doctor not necessarily.

The best treatment will be homemade, warm and abundant drink to avoid dehydration. In order to bring down the temperature and relieve pain, paracetamol or ibuprofen can be taken. In the event of symptoms similar to the flu, you should contact the doctor:

people aged 65 years and older;

  • pregnant women;
  • People with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, lungs, kidney or neurological diseases;
  • People with weakened immunity.
  • Since for these categories of people, the flu may be more dangerous, the doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs. Antibiotics for the treatment of influenza do not apply, since the flu is caused by a virus, not a bacterium.

How long does flu last?

Usually, with flu, symptoms begin to manifest a few days after infection.

Symptoms arise sharply, suddenly, but are most pronounced in the second or third day of the disease, and after a week you should feel much better, although the feeling of fatigue can remain for a long time. As a rule, you become infectious - that is, you can convey the infection to others - the day before the symptoms and for another 5-6 days after that. Children, as well as people with weakened immunity, for example, patients with cancer, can remain contagious longer.

The elderly, as well as persons with some chronic influenza diseases, can flow in a more severe form, and with more probability they can develop serious complications, for example, respiratory infection.

According to official statistics, about 1000 people die from influenza per year. However, the physicians themselves recognize such figures "gentle", since there are no cases of death from severe complications of influenza - edema of lightweight, respiratory failure and other states fixed separately (for comparison - in the United States, according to American physicians, per year from this infection Up to 30 thousand people die).

The flu, in contrast to other OSR and ORVI, starts suddenly and may be accompanied by the following symptoms:

Influenza is an acute viral respiratory tract infection transmitted mainly by air-droplet.

Symptoms of influenza

Sudden heat - temperatures from 38 ° C and above;

  • dry chest cough;
  • headaches;
  • fatigue;
  • chills;
  • muscular pain;
  • pain in limbs or joints;
  • diarrhea or stomach disorder;
  • lack of appetite;
  • a sore throat;
  • Bad sleep.
  • Rubber and Chihannia are not characteristic of influenza, or may appear only by 2-3 days of the disease.

Flu or cold?

Symptoms of influenza and colds can be similar. Here's how they can be distinguished:

Symptoms of influenza:

manifest quickly, with heat and pain in the muscles;

  • There is no excuse so much that you can not engage in ordinary affairs.
  • Symptoms of colds:

appear gradually;

  • Only the nose and throat are affected;
  • Quite moderate, allow us to lead the usual life and, as a rule, even go to work.
  • Causes of influenza

The influenza virus is contained in millions of smallest drops flying out of the nose and the mouth of an infected person during coughing or sneezing. The dissipation range of these droplets is usually about a meter. For some time they twist in the air, and then settle on the surfaces, remaining viable up to 24 hours. Inspoping these particles, you can get infected with flu. You can also infect the virus by touching the surface on which these particles downtrene, and then touched to your nose or mouth.

Power Virus Power Supplies can easily become home to household houses and in public places, including food, door handles, remote control, railings, handsecraft and computer keyboards. Therefore, in order to avoid infection and the spread of influenza, it is important to wash your hands.

If you infect the influenza virus, your body will start producing antibodies to combat it. Antibodies are proteins that recognize and neutralize pathogenic microorganisms that penetrate your body.

Your antibodies will remember this influenza virus and start fighting him if he again falls into your body. But over time, the flu virus may change, turning into a new view or strain, which means that your body can not recognize it, and you can get infected again. When the virus mutirs and a new strain appears, to which people either do not have immunity at all, or it is quite weak, it can cause the flu epidemic on a global scale. So, for example, happened to the swine influenza in 2009.

Illness with flu, you should consult a doctor if:

When should you consult a doctor

The symptoms deteriorated significantly and include either shortness of breath (difficulty breathing), or breast pain, or cough with blood, or if other symptoms have manifested, not characteristic of flu, for example, rash;

  • Symptoms do not pass more than a week;
  • You have a disease that complicates the flow of influenza.
  • Therapist (or pediatrician, if we are talking about your child) will make a diagnosis based on symptoms and information about previously transferred diseases. If there is a suspicion that symptoms can be caused by another disease - for example, malaria, if you have recently returned from the journey - you can assign additional analyzes or send to a consultation to a specialist in the hospital.

If you are sick with the flu, most likely, you can independently cure at home.

The choice of place where the patient will undergo treatment depends on the nature of the flow and severity of clinical manifestations of the disease. Light forms can remain unrecognized, especially in the district-epidemic period. In such cases, patients may be left at home.

For this you follow:

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  • be warm;
  • Drink a lot of fluid to avoid dehydration.
  • If you feel bad and you have a heat, you can take paracetamol or anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen to knock down a high temperature and relieve pain.

If you are in a group of increased risk for the emergence of complications, the doctor may prescribe you antiviral drugs.

Antiviral drugs do not treat flu, but help:

reduce the time of the disease about 1 day;

  • facilitate some symptoms;
  • Reduce the risk of developing serious complications.
  • Antibiotics with influenza are not prescribed, as they do not affect viruses. However, sometimes antibiotics treat complications with influenza, especially heavy respiratory tract infections or pneumonia.

Antiviral drugs for influenza

Antiviral drugs do not give the virus to multiply in your body. In addition to existing for a long time on the formacetic market of antiviral funds (Arbidol, Remantadin, Inhabirin, Tiloron, etc.), new drugs are now gained popularity: Tamiflu and Releza.

Tamiflu is taken inside (orally) in the form of capsules or in liquid form. Tamiflu must begin to take within 48 hours from the moment of the first influenza symptoms. The dosage is usually 1 tablet 2 times a day for 5 days. However, if you have kidney disease, you can be spelled out by a smaller dosage. Tamiflu can cause nausea, vomiting, pain in the stomach and diarrhea. These side effects should not be serious, but if it bothers you, consult your doctor.

Relay is a dry powder that is inhaled through the inhaler. Just like Tamiflu, it must begin to take it within 48 hours from the moment of the first symptoms of influenza (36 hours for children). The dosage is usually 2 inhalations 2 times a day for 5 days. This is a safe drug, rarely causing side effects.

Antiviral drugs can be taken to prevent flu.

Complications for influenza are mainly arising from people from a group of increased risk, including in older people, pregnant women and people with chronic diseases or weakened immunity.

Specific influenza-hemorrhagic pneumonia (acute hemorgic eaters, accompanied by the fluctuations in respiratory failure of the maximum extent).

The most common complication is a bacterial respiratory infection. Sometimes she can complicate and grow into pneumonia. The course of antibiotics usually cures the respiratory tract or pneumonia infection, but in extremely rare cases there is a threat to life, especially for the elderly and people with weak health.

Other serious complications are rare, they include:

acute tonsillitis (angina);

  • Otitis the middle ear - the accumulation of fluid in the ear;
  • Septic shock - blood infection, resulting in a strong decrease in blood pressure;
  • meningitis - infection of the head and spinal cord;
  • Encephalitis - inflammation of the brain.
  • Prevention of influenza

There are three basic ways of flu warning methods: compliance with hygiene rules, such as washing hands and cleaning, vaccination against influenza and antiviral drugs.

The most effective way to slow down the spread of influenza is not to give to the microbes. Always take the following measures:

Wash your hands with water with soap regularly;

  • regularly wipe surfaces, including keyboard, telephone and door handles to get rid of viruses;
  • When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a napkin;
  • If possible, immediately throw away the used napkins.
  • Influenza vaccination
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The annual flu vaccination is carried out for the following categories of citizens from a higher risk group:

Children from 6 months and students of grades 1-11;

  • Students of higher professional and medium
  • professional educational institutions;
  • adults working on individual professions and posts (employees of medical and educational institutions, transport, communal sphere, etc.);
  • Adults over 60 years old.

Do I need to make influenza vaccination every year?

Yes. If you feel about the increased risk group, you should pass flu vaccination every year so that it keeps its action. Influenza viruses change every year, so the flu will be different from last year's influenza.

Antiviral drugs

It is recommended to take antiviral drugs for the prevention of influenza in case:

  • Many people around you are sick with influenza;
  • You have chronic diseases that increase the likelihood of influenza, for example, diabetes, heart disease, lungs, kidneys or neurological diseases;
  • You are 65 years old or more;
  • You contacted a person who had symptoms similar to the flu, and you can start antiviral treatment for 48 hours.

The vaccination does not provide complete protection in the following cases:

  • You did not vaccinate with the last winter;
  • You can not be vaccinated or made you, but she has not yet started to act;
  • You made a vaccination against another flu strain.

If in the nursing home or disabled cases, cases of flu are recorded - and there, the virus can spread very quickly - to people in contact with those who have confirmed the diagnosis of influenza, antiviral drugs can be appointed.

What doctor to apply for flu?

With the help of the service, you can find a therapist or pediatrician (for a child). If the doctor recommends that you go to the hospital in connection with the difficult course of infection, choose a good infectious hospital for hospitalization.

Published: October 20, 2018

Avoiding colds in the cold season succeeds a little. And during the epidemics, respiratory infections are distributed with lightning speed. Therefore, everyone without exception is good to know how to conduct treatment of colds and influenza at home to quickly recover and return to line. After all, it is not only unpleasant to lie with the temperature in bed, but simply once.

Determine the disease in symptoms

After the awakening laid nose and tricks in the throat? Early panic - these are the main manifestations of colds. Usually it proceeds without a strong deterioration of states. Some even go to work with a runny nose and cough. But it is not worth doing this. In addition, there is a risk of infecting others, the body may not withstand such loads. This will lead to tightening the disease. If there is an opportunity, then it is better to settle down a couple of days in bed. So the treatment of colds at home will quickly give the result. As a rule, subject to the recommendations of a specialist and creating an optimal environment for recovery, the disease passes in 5-7 days.

Influenza is a more serious case. It is characterized by a sharp start and sharp deterioration in the overall state. Characteristic symptoms include high body temperature, severe headache, chills, light-friendly, moderate nausea, sweating. With the appearance of these signs, you need to go to the hospital, and better - to cause a doctor to the house. How to treat flu in adults at home, should tell a specialist.

First actions for illness

Many prefer to treat cold and flu at home to quickly recover. After all, the doctor sends for a hospital for at least a week. And for some this is a non-disabilities: reports at work will not write themselves, and no one will close tasks. Therefore, people buy various advertised drugs in pharmacies and ask acquaintances, the better to treat the flu. This is the wrong approach to therapy.

If during a cold you can still do without professional assistance, then with flu - no. Do not risk your own health and hope for advertised funds. You need to quickly access the doctor: the sooner, the better. The specialist will appoint proven drugs and will tell how to treat flu in adults at home.

What means will help to defeat the virus?

To treat influenza at home, doctors recommend using medications with a comprehensive action. They not only sustain the pathogens, but also strengthen their own protective forces of the body, due to which they accelerate the process of recovery and reduce the risk of adverse effects. A good example of such a drug is Derinate. The tool possesses three useful properties:

  • antiviral - helps the body to deal with respiratory infection;
  • immunomodulatory - enhances its own protective forces, improves cellular and humoral immunity;
  • Reparative - restores the integrity of the nasopharynx mucosa and strengthens it, thereby prevents the penetration of viruses and bacteria into the body, reduces the risk of re-infection and the development of complications.

To treat the flu in adults at home, you can spray Derinat, and for children from the first days of life there are nasal drops. Before use, you need to consult with a specialist.

How to treat flu in adults at home?

To facilitate the basic symptoms of the disease and rather stand up on his feet, in coordination with the doctor you can use folk recipes. In the treatment of flu at home, honey, ginger, onions, garlic, lemons, rose robes, cranberries and lingonberries are useful. These ingredients are used when brewing teas, preparation of mors, useful decoctions and infusions. The gifts of nature will help restore nasal breathing, soften the pain in the throat, enrich the weakened organism with vitamins, minerals and microelements.

In order for the treatment of colds at home quickly, it is necessary to regularly ventilate the room. Fresh air will clean the room from viruses, and the pathogenic microorganisms will not be able to re-hold an attack. Also do not forget about wet cleaning. Infectious agents are settled on surfaces and retain activity for several days. Air moisturizing is another valuable advice. Special humidifiers or wet terry towels will help create a suitable microclimate.

Observe the prescriptions of the doctor, create favorable conditions for recovery, and then the disease will pass in a short time. Be healthy!

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